J Korean Diet Assoc.  2013 Feb;19(1):46-58.

Calcium Intakes in Korean and American Populations

  • 1Deparment of Food & Nutrition, Dongduk Women's University, Seoul 136-714, Korea. yjyang@dongduk.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Clinical Nutrition, Dongduk Women's University, Seoul 136-714, Korea.
  • 3Department of Food & Nutrition, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Korea.
  • 4Department of Food & Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Korea.
  • 5Department of Home Economics Education, Pai Chai University, Daejeon 302-735, Korea.


Calcium intake has been insufficient in all age groups in previous Korean national surveys. This study was conducted to investigate calcium intake in Korean and American populations at different ages. We analyzed two national survey data: the 2007~2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) and the 2007~2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Statistically, survey procedures were applied using the weight, cluster, and strata variables. The mean calcium intake of Koreans at ages of 1~2 y, 3~5 y, 6~11 y, 12~18 y, 19~64 y, and 65+y was lower than American populations at those ages. The sufficient proportions based on Korean Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of 1~2 y, 3~5 y, 6~11 y, 12~18 y, 19~64 y, and 65+y in Koreans were 45.5%, 33.1%, 24.3%, 16.6%, 32.7%, and 19.0%. While the sufficient rates based on American EAR of 1~3 y, 4~8 y, 9~13 y, 14~18 y, 19~30 y, 31~50 y, 51~70 y, and 71+y in US population were 88.5%, 54.4%, 35.2%, 35.8%, 55.3%, 55.2%, 40.6%, and 24.5%. Overall, the major foods contributing to calcium intakes in Koreans were milk, baechukimchi, and anchovies, whereas, milk products, pasta, or bread were major contributions to calcium in American populations. The calcium supplement intakes in the American population were 5.5 mg (1~2 y), 15.5 mg (3~5 y), 13.9 mg (6~11 y), 35.7 mg (12~18 y), 150.3 mg (19~64 y) and 334.4 mg (> or =65 y). These results suggest that Korean adolescents and older adults are the most insufficient in dietary calcium intakes among Koreans. In order to accurately estimate calcium intakes in Korean populations, calcium supplements and calcium-fortified foods should be considered.


calcium intake; KNHANES; NHANES; contribution foods; calcium supplement

MeSH Terms

Calcium, Dietary
Nutrition Surveys
Calcium, Dietary
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