J Reprod Endocrinol.  2012 Oct;4(2):99-106.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Osteoporosis

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, College of Medicine, Kosin University, Busan, Korea. marianna1113@naver.com

Abstract

Osteoporosis is a silent disease until it is complicated by fractures-fractures that can occur following minimal trauma. Osteoporosis is common among older adults and results in costly osteoporotic fractures. With an ageing population, the medical and socioeconomic effect of osteoporosis, particularly postmenopausal osteoporosis, will increase further Osteoporosis can be prevented and can be diagnosed and treated before any fracture occurs. Importantly, even after the first fracture has occurred, there are effective treatments to decrease the risk of further fractures. Prevention, detection and treatment of osteoporosis should be a mandate of primary care providers. The evaluation of postmenopausal women for osteoporosis risk requires a medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. Major risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis (as defined by bone mineral density) include advanced age, genetics, lifestyle factors (such as low calcium and vitamin D intake, smoking), thinness, and menopause status. Management focuses first on nonpharmacologic measures, such as a balanced diet, adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, adequate exercise, smoking cessation, avoidance of excessive alcohol intake and fall prevention. If pharmacologic therapy is indicated, government-approved options are bisphosphonates, a selective estrogen- receptor modulator, parathyroid hormone, estrogens, and calcitonin. Management strategies for postmenopausal women involve identifying those at risk of low bone density and fracture, followed by instituting measures that focus on reducing modifiable risk factors through lifestyle changes and, if indicated, pharmacologic therapy.

Keyword

Diagnosis; Osteoporosis; Treatment

MeSH Terms

Adult
Bone Density
Calcitonin
Calcium
Diagnostic Tests, Routine
Diet
Diphosphonates
Estrogens
Female
Humans
Life Style
Menopause
Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal
Osteoporotic Fractures
Parathyroid Hormone
Physical Examination
Primary Health Care
Risk Factors
Smoking Cessation
Thinness
Vitamin D
Calcitonin
Calcium
Diphosphonates
Estrogens
Parathyroid Hormone
Vitamin D
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