Int J Stem Cells.  2016 May;9(1):152-162. 10.15283/ijsc.2016.9.1.152.

Moderate Hypoxia Exhibits Increased Endothelial Progenitor Vessel-forming Ability However Gestational Diabetes Caused to Impede Compensatory Defense Reaction

  • 1Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Girne American University, Girne, North Cyprus via Mersin 10, Turkey.
  • 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Girne American University, Girne, North Cyprus via Mersin 10, Turkey.
  • 3Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Girne American University, Girne, North Cyprus via Mersin 10, Turkey.


Endothelium represents a defense barrier and responds and integrates neuro humoral stimulus which describes as a compensatory mechanism. Endothelium formed with endothelial cells (ECs) and their progenitors. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) represent minor subpopulation of mononuclear cells in the blood. During acute hypoxia, larger amount of EPCs mobilize into the peripheral blood and they directly contribute revascularization process. One of the subtypes of EPC is termed endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) which they possess de novo vessel-forming ability. The present study aims to investigate the role of hypoxia in EPCs functional and vessel-forming ability. Furthermore, it was investigated whether fetal exposure to a diabetic intrauterine environment influence EPCs adaptation ability. Human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) derived ECFCs were selected in all experimental procedures obtained from normal and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) subjects via in vitro cell culture methods. Early passage (<5) HUCB ECFCs obtain from GDM (n; 5) and control (n; 5) subjects were cultured with plates pre-coated with collagen in vitro 72 h hypoxic as well as normoxic condition. Endothelial, angiogenic and hypoxia associated gene specific primers designed to perform Real-time PCR. Senescenes assay conducted onto HUCB ECFCs to investigate their functional clonogenic ability. To quantify their vessel forming ability matrigel assay was applied. These data demonstrates that moderate hypoxia results increased vessel-forming ability and VEGFA expression in HUCB ECFCs obtained from control subjects. However, GDM caused to impede compensatory defense reaction against hypoxia which observed in control subjects. Thus, it illuminates beneficial information related future therapeutic modalities.


Human endothelial progenitor cells; Moderate hypoxia; Human cord blood

MeSH Terms

Cell Culture Techniques
Diabetes, Gestational*
Endothelial Cells
Fetal Blood
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Stem Cells
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