J Korean Soc Ther Radiol Oncol.  2006 Mar;24(1):21-29.

Results of Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy in Low Rectal Cancer

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan, Korea. yunhg@duih.org

Abstract

PURPOSE: This study explored the anal sphincter-saving rate and down-staging rate after preoperative chemoradiotherapy for treating lower rectal cancer. We also explored the prognosis of the patients who refused surgery after preoperative chemoradiotherapy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Thirty seven patients with histologically proven lower rectal cancer who underwent preoperative chemoradiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. In each case, the tumor location was 0 to 5 cm from the anal verge, and curative resection of the cancer with performing a sphincter-saving procedure was not feasible before chemoradiotherapy. In each case, the staging examinations, including biopsy, were done before starting radiotherapy and this was repeated at 1 month after radiation therapy.
RESULTS
After chemoradiotherapy, among the 37 included patients, 56.8% and 32.4% were downstaged to the T stage and N stage, respectively, when comparing the postradiotherapy stage with pre-radiotherapy stage. Twenty five patients underwent complete resection of cancer at 6 weeks after radiotherapy: eleven, eight and six patients underwent abdominoperineal resection, low anterior resection and local excision, respectively. The sphincter-saving rate among the 24 completely resected cases was 54.2%. Twelve patients refused surgery after radiotherapy. Among 6 patients who refused surgery with biopsy-proven complete remission after chemoradiotherapy, 5 patients were alive without disease at a median follow up period of 31 months, and only 1 patient had local failure.
CONCLUSION
For lower rectal cancer, a high sphincter-saving rate was accomplished with preoperative chemoradiotherapy. The prognosis of the patients who refused surgery with biopsy proven complete remission after chemoradiotherapy was good and these patients need to be kept under close surveillance.

Keyword

Preoperative chemoradiotherapy; Rectal cancer; Low rectal cancer; Anal sphincter-saving

MeSH Terms

Biopsy
Chemoradiotherapy*
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Prognosis
Radiotherapy
Rectal Neoplasms*
Retrospective Studies
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