Korean J Radiol.  2009 Feb;10(1):58-62. 10.3348/kjr.2009.10.1.58.

Induction of Upregulation and Downregulation of the T-Cell Activation Marker CD98 in Patients Undergoing Contrast-Enhanced CT with Iodinated Non-Ionic Dimeric Contrast Medium

  • 1Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany. ingrid.boehm@ukb.uni-bonn.de


This study was designed to determine prospectively the expression of the multifunctional CD98 protein in peripheral white blood cells in patients receiving iodinated contrast media (CM) for a computed tomography (CT) examination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 12 adult patients that received non-ionic dimeric CM (iosimenol or iodixanol), the expression of CD98 was analyzed from samples of peripheral white blood cells obtained prior to, one hour, and 24 hours after CM injection by the use of flow cytometry analysis and the use of the direct immunofluorescence technique. RESULTS: Overall, expression of CD98 was significantly downregulated 24 hours after CM injection (51.9% +/- 10.8% vs. 38.8% +/- 16.9%; p < 0.04). Patients that received iosimenol exhibited a more pronounced but not significant decrease of CD98 expression both one hour and 24 hours after CM injection. In an analysis of specific patient responses, CD98 downregulation occurred in eight patients. In two patients, CD98 was upregulated, and in the remaining two patients, expression remained unchanged. No patient acquired an adverse CM reaction. CONCLUSION: This is the first demonstration that CM may be a regulator of CD98 expression. To determine if upregulation is associated with an increased risk for the acquisition of an adverse CM-induced hypersensitivity reaction and if downregulation is associated without a risk for the acquisition of an adverse CM-induced hypersensitivity reaction, further studies with a larger population of patients are required.


Contrast media; Adverse drug reaction; Drug hypersensitivity; Flow cytometry; CD98 antigen; T-cells

MeSH Terms

Antigens, CD98/*metabolism
Benzamides/diagnostic use/*pharmacology
Contrast Media/*pharmacology
Down-Regulation/*drug effects
Flow Cytometry
Lymphocyte Activation
Middle Aged
Propanolamines/diagnostic use/*pharmacology
T-Lymphocytes/*drug effects/immunology
*Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Triiodobenzoic Acids/diagnostic use/*pharmacology
Up-Regulation/*drug effects


  • Fig. 1 Chemical structure of iosimenol (upper panel) and iodixanol (lower panel).

  • Fig. 2 Representative fluorescence microscopy of peripheral white blood cells expressing CD98 after staining with monoclonal anti-CD98 antibody labelled with FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate).

  • Fig. 3 Modulation of the CD98 expression under the influence of contrast media injection.A. Contrast media injection in patients that received iosimenol and iodixanol induced non-significant decrease of CD98 expression after one hour and significant decrease of CD98 expression in peripheral lymphocytes after 24 hours (*p < 0.04).B. CD98 expression in lymphocytes (%) ± standard deviation prior to and at one hour and at 24 hours after injection of either iosimenol (left diagram) or iodixanol (right diagram). Decrease of CD98 expression in patients that received iosimenol was significant after 24 hours (**p < 0.05).


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