Int Neurourol J.  2023 Jun;27(2):146-154. 10.5213/inj.2346046.023.

Comprehensive Analysis of Individual Anatomical Structures for Micturition Symptoms and Maximum Flow Rate in Men With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia/Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

  • 1Department of Urology, Urological Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Department of Urology, Veterans Health Service Medical Center, Seoul, Korea


Individual anatomical structural variations, including intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP), prostatic urethral angle (PUA), prostatic urethral length, or prostatic apex shape, were correlated with micturition symptoms. We aimed to investigate the effects of these variables on micturition symptoms in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)/lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).
This observational study was based on data from 263 men with the first visit to health promotion center and without BPH/LUTS treatment between March 2020 and September 2022. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the variables affecting total international prostate symptom score, maximum flow rate (Qmax), and voiding efficacy (postvoid residual volume to total bladder volume ratio).
Of 263 patients, decreasing PUA increases the severity of international prostate symptoms score (mild, 141.9°; moderate, 136.0°; severe, 131.2°; P<0.015). A multivariate analysis reported that the total international prostate symptom score was correlated with age (P=0.002), PUA (P=0.007), and Qmax (P=0.008). Qmax was negatively associated with IPP (P=0.002). In subanalysis for large prostate volume (≥30 mL, n=81), international prostate symptom score was correlated with PUA (P=0.013), Qmax was correlated with prostatic apex shape (P=0.017), and length of proximal prostatic urethra (P=0.007). IPP was not identified as a significant factor. For small prostate volume (<30 mL, n=182), age (P=0.011) and prostate volume (P=0.004) are correlated with increasing Qmax.
This study presented that individual anatomical structure variations influenced the micturition symptoms according to prostate volume. To identify the major resistant factors in men with BPH/LUTS, further studies are required to investigate which components played a role in major resistant factors for micturition symptoms.


Anatomical structure; Angle; Benign prostatic hyperplasia; Protrusion; Shape
Full Text Links
  • INJ
export Copy
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
Copyright © 2024 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: