Int Neurourol J.  2021 Mar;25(1):3-11. 10.5213/inj.2040174.087.

The Urinary Tract Microbiome in Male Genitourinary Diseases: Focusing on Benign Prostate Hyperplasia and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

  • 1Department of Urology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea


The human body is sterile during gestation; however, but during and after birth, the entire body surface becomes host to an enormous variety of microorganisms. Urine in the urinary tract was once considered sterile based on the lack of cultured microorganisms. Many recent studies have revealed evidence of microorganisms in human urine in the absence of clinical infection. Sequencing methods and analytical techniques are rapidly evolving to improve the ability to detect bacterial DNA and living bacteria and to understand the microbiota of the urinary tract. In women, fascinating evidence associates urinary tract microbiota with lower urinary tract symptoms. However, in men, the relevance of urinary tract microbiota in low urinary tract symptoms and prostate disease has not been established. In this review, we highlight a recent study that increases our ability to understand the urinary tract microbiota in men with lower urinary tract symptoms.


Microbiome; Microbiota; Lower urinary tract symptoms; Prostatic hyperplasia
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