Gut Liver.  2023 Jan;17(1):108-118. 10.5009/gnl220081.

Potential of Gut Microbe-Derived Extracellular Vesicles to Differentiate Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients from Healthy Controls

Affiliations
  • 1Interdisciplinary Program of Bioinformatics, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
  • 2Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea.
  • 3Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
  • 4Department of Public Health Science, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul, Korea.
  • 5Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

Abstract

Background/Aims
This study aimed to evaluate the potential of the stool microbiome and gut microbe-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) to differentiate between patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and healthy controls, and to predict relapse in patients with IBD.
Methods
Metagenomic profiling of the microbiome and bacterial EVs in stool samples of controls (n=110) and patients with IBD (n=110) was performed using 16S rRNA sequencing and then compared. Patients with IBD were divided into two enterotypes based on their microbiome, and the cumulative risk of relapse was evaluated.
Results
There was a significant difference in the composition of the stool microbiome and gut microbe-derived EVs between patients with IBD and controls. The alpha diversity of the microbiome in patients with IBD was significantly lower than that in controls, while the beta diversity also differed significantly between the two groups. These findings were more prominent in gut microbe-derived EVs than in the stool microbiome. The survival curve tended to be different for enterotypes based on the gut microbe-derived EVs; however, this difference was not statistically significant (log-rank test, p=0.166). In the multivariable analysis, elevated fecal calprotectin (>250 mg/kg) was the only significant risk factor associated with relapse (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.147; 95% confidence interval, 1.545 to 6.408; p=0.002).
Conclusions
Analysis of gut microbe-derived EVs is better at differentiating patients with IBD from healthy controls than stool microbiome analysis.

Keyword

Inflammatory bowel diseases; Microbiota; Extracellular vesicles
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