J Korean Orthop Assoc.  2022 Jun;57(3):204-212 . 10.4055/jkoa.2022.57.3.204.

Analysis of the Cement Distribution Pattern and Other Risk Factors that Affect the Incidence of Recompression Fractures of Vertebral Bodies after Vertebroplasty or Kyphoplasty

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, Korea

Abstract

Purpose
With the increasing incidence of recompression fractures after vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty, this study analyzed the risk factors that affect the occurrence of recompression vertebral fractures, such as cement distribution, existence of avascular necrosis (Kummell’s disease), type of procedures, bone mineral density, sex, and age.
Materials and Methods
Two hundred and thirty-eight patients who underwent vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty at the author’s clinic from 2005 to 2015 were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into four groups according to the distribution of injected cement. The patients were classified as type 1 and type 2 when injected cement was contacted only to the upper or lower endplate of the body respectively. They were classified as type 3 when both the upper and lower endplates were contacted by injected cement. When neither the upper nor the lower endplate was contacted, the patients were called type 4. This study statistically evaluated the effects of the risk factors, including the cement distribution on the incidence of recompression vertebral fracture after vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty.
Results
There were 59 cases (24.8%) of recompression fracture after vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty, among the 238 cases. According to the analysis, the recompression of the vertebral body after vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty occurred more often when the compression fracture was accompanied by osteonecrosis at the body (p<0.05). The patients who had injected cement distributed at both upper and lower plate simultaneously (type 3) had a lower incidence of recompression fracture of the vertebral body after vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty (p=0.008). In addition, the kyphoplasty group had a lower incidence of recompression after the procedure than vertebroplasty group (p=0.02).
Conclusion
Careful attention should be given to these patients with osteonecrosis at the compression fracture level through a preoperative evaluation. In addition, if the injected cement does not contact both the upper and lower endplates, careful observation is required during the follow-up period based on the high incidence of vertebral recompression fractures proven through this study. Further technical and biomechanical research and efforts will be needed to make the cement contact both endplates.

Keyword

osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture; recompression fracture; vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty; cement distribution; avascular necrosis
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