Yonsei Med J.  2021 Oct;62(10):911-917. 10.3349/ymj.2021.62.10.911.

Delays in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Management Is Associated with Hematoma Expansion and Worse Outcomes: Changes in COVID-19 Era

  • 1Department of Neurosurgery, Severance Stroke Center, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Department of Neurosurgery, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 3Department of Neurosurgery, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Korea
  • 4Department of Neurosurgery, Yongin Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yongin, Korea
  • 5Department of Neurosurgery, International St. Mary’s Hospital, Catholic Kwandong University, Inchoen, Korea


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic disrupted the emergency medical care system worldwide. We analyzed the changes in the management of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and compared the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 eras.
Materials and Methods
From March to October of the COVID-19 era (2020), 83 consecutive patients with ICH were admitted to four comprehensive stroke centers. We retrospectively reviewed the data of patients and compared the treatment workflow metrics, treatment modalities, and clinical outcomes with the patients admitted during the same period of pre-COVID-19 era (2017–2019).
Three hundred thirty-eight patients (83 in COVID-19 era and 255 in pre-COVID-19 era) were included in this study. Symptom onset/detection-to-door time [COVID-19; 56.0 min (34.0–106.0), pre-COVID-19; 40.0 min (27.0–98.0), p=0.016] and median door to-intensive treatment time differed between the two groups [COVID-19; 349.0 min (177.0–560.0), pre-COVID-19; 184.0 min (134.0–271.0), p<0.001]. Hematoma expansion was detected more significantly in the COVID-19 era (39.8% vs. 22.1%, p=0.002). At 3-month follow-up, clinical outcomes of patients were worse in the COVID-19 era (Good modified Rankin Scale; 33.7% in COVID-19, 46.7% in pre-COVID-19, p=0.039).
During the COVID-19 era, delays in management of ICH was associated with hematoma expansion and worse outcomes.


COVID-19; hemorrhage; incidence; stroke
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