Kidney Res Clin Pract.  2021 Jun;40(2):250-262. 10.23876/j.krcp.20.174.

Changes in metabolic parameters and adverse kidney and cardiovascular events during glomerulonephritis and renal vasculitis treatment in patients with and without diabetes mellitus

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Renal Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore

Abstract

Background
Cardiovascular disease causes significant morbidity and mortality in patients with glomerulonephritis, which is increasingly diagnosed in older individuals who may have diabetes mellitus (DM). We evaluated the impact of DM on metabolic profile, renal and cardiovascular outcomes during treatment and follow-up of individuals with glomerulonephritis.
Methods
We performed a retrospective cohort study of 601 consecutive adults with biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis for factors associated with kidney failure, hospitalization for cardiovascular events, and death. Biopsies with isolated diabetic nephropathy were excluded.
Results
The median patient age was 49.8 years (36.7–60.9 years) with estimated glomerular filtration rate of 56.7 mL/min/1.73 m2 (27.7–93.2 mL/min/1.73 m2). DM was present in 25.4%. The most frequent diagnoses were minimal change disease (MCD) or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (29.5%), lupus nephritis (21.3%), immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (19.1%), and membranous nephropathy (12.1%). The median follow-up was 38.8 months (interquartile range [IQR], 26.8–55.8 months). Among 511 individuals with lupus nephritis, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, MCD/FSGS, membranous nephropathy, and IgA nephropathy, 52 (10.2%) developed kidney failure at a median 16.4 months (IQR, 2.3–32.2 months), while 29 (5.7%) had cardiovascular-related hospitalizations at 12.9 months (IQR, 4.8–31.8 months) and 31 (6.1%) died at 13.5 months (IQR, 2.5–42.9 months) after diagnosis. Cox regression analysis found that baseline DM was independently associated with kidney failure (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–4.05, p = 0.03) and cardiovascular-related hospitalization (adjusted HR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.21–5.98, p = 0.02) but not with mortality.
Conclusion
DM was strongly associated with kidney failure and hospitalization for cardiovascular events in patients with biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis.

Keyword

Cardiovascular diseases; Diabetes mellitus; Glomerulonephritis; Kidney failure
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