J Dent Hyg Sci.  2021 Mar;21(1):45-51. 10.17135/jdhs.2021.21.1.45.

Analysis of Periodontitis Biomarker Expression in Gingival Crevicular Fluids

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Seongnam 13135, Korea

Abstract

Background
Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is a major dental inflammatory disease with a very high prevalence; it is the main cause of tooth loss. Therefore, diagnostic biomarkers that can monitor gum inflammation are important for oral healthcare. Since the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) adequately reflects changes in the periodontal environment, they have become a target for the development of effective diagnostic biomarkers for periodontitis. In the present study, the level of the target molecules suggested as diagnostic biomarkers for periodontitis were analyzed in GCF samples collected from healthy individuals and periodontitis patients. In addition, useful targets for the diagnosis of periodontitis were evaluated.
Methods
GCF samples were collected from healthy individuals and periodontitis patients using absorbent paper points. SDS-PAGE and Coomassie staining were performed for protein analysis. The protein concentrations of GCF specimens were determined using the Bradford method. The levels of the target molecules appropriate for diagnosing periodontal disease were measured by ELISA, according to the manufacturer’s protocol.
Results
The protein concentration of GCF collected from periodontitis patients was 3.72 fold higher than that in an equal volume of GCF collected from healthy individuals. ELISA analysis showed that the level of interukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, metalloproteinases 2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), azurocidin, and odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein (ODAM) were higher in the GCF samples from the periodontitis patients than in those from the healthy individuals. However, the level of IL-6 and TNF-α were relatively low (> 5 pg/ml). The prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels were not significantly different between the two GCF samples.
Conclusion
These results indicate that IL-8, MMP-2, MMP-9, azurocidin, and ODAM are potentially useful diagnostic biomarkers for periodontitis; combining multiple biomarkers will improve the diagnostic accuracy of periodontitis.

Keyword

Biomarkers; Diagnosis; Gingival crevicular fluid; Oral hygiene; Periodontitis
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