Neonatal Med.  2020 Nov;27(4):181-186. 10.5385/nm.2020.27.4.181.

Early Onset Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Non-Obese Adolescents Born Small for Gestational Age

  • 1Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea


Being born small for gestational age (SGA) has been strongly associated with mortality during the perinatal period and long-term risk of metabolic syndrome, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and coronary heart disease. Insulin resistance is an important factor in the development of metabolic syndrome in SGA, with several proposed hypotheses. Here, we report two cases of non-obese adolescent patients with early onset type 2 diabetes who were born SGA. Of these, one experienced catch-up growth, while the other did not. Both had a high body fat percentage at the time of diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and were diagnosed with fatty liver and hyperlipidemia before adolescence, at the age of 7 years. Early interventions for SGA are needed for healthy catch-up growth to prevent metabolic diseases in the future.


Infant, small for gestational age; Diabetes mellitus, type 2; Metabolic syndrome; Insulin resistance; Catch-up growth


  • Figure 1. Growth chart of case 1. The blue vertical bar represents the target height range with the median representing mid-parental height (MPH). Target height range=MPH±5 cm.

  • Figure 2. Growth chart of case 2. The red horizontal bar represents the growth hormone therapy duration, and the blue vertical bar represents the target height range with the median representing mid-parental height (MPH). Target height range= MPH±5 cm.


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