Investig Clin Urol.  2021 Jan;62(1):1-13. 10.4111/icu.20200395.

Clinical utility of current biomarkers for prostate cancer detection

  • 1Department of Urology, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Chuncheon, Korea
  • 2Department of Urology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam, Korea


Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) remains the most used test to detect prostate cancer (PCa), the limited specificity and an elevated rate of overdiagnosis are the main problems associated with PSA testing. Over the last three decades, a large body of evidence has indicated that PSA screening methods for PCa are problematic, although PSA screening significantly reduces PCaspecific mortality. A number of novel biomarkers have been introduced to overcome these limitations of PSA in the clinical setting. These biomarkers have demonstrated an increased ability to select patients for biopsy and identify men at risk for clinically significant PCa. Although a number of assays require further validation, initial data are promising. Forthcoming results will ultimately determine the clinical utility and commercial availability of these assays. Extensive efforts have recently been made to identify and commercialize novel PCa biomarkers for more effective detection of PCa, either alone or in combination with currently available clinical tools. This review highlights the role of existing and promising serum and urinary biomarkers for the detection and prognostication of PCa before prostate biopsy.


Biomarkers; Diagnosis; Prostatic neoplasms
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