Cancer Res Treat.  2020 Oct;52(4):1050-1058. 10.4143/crt.2020.437.

Comparison between Craniospinal Irradiation and Limited-Field Radiation in Patients with Non-metastatic Bifocal Germinoma

  • 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
  • 2Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
  • 3Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
  • 4Department of Clinical Nutrition, Beijing Children’s Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
  • 5Centre of Endocrinology Genetics and Metabolism, National Centre for Children’s Health, Beijing Children’s Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China


Whether craniospinal irradiation (CSI) could be replaced by limited-field radiation in non-metastatic bifocal germinoma remains controversial. We addressed the issue based on the data from our series and the literature.
Data from 49 patients diagnosed with non-metastatic bifocal germinoma at our hospital during the last 10 years were collected. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 was used to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Additionally, 81 patients identified from the literature were also analyzed independently.
In our cohort, 34 patients had tumors in the sellar/suprasellar (S/SS) plus pineal gland (PG) regions and 15 in the S/SS plus basal ganglia/thalamus (BG/T) regions. The median follow-up period was 52 months (range, 10 to 134 months). Our survival analysis showed that patients treated with CSI (n=12) or whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT; n=34) had comparable disease-free survival (DFS; p=0.540), but better DFS than those treated with focal radiotherapy (FR; n=3, p=0.016). All 81 patients from the literature had tumors in the S/SS+PG regions. Relapses were documented in 4/45 patients treated with FR, 2/17 treated with whole-ventricle irradiation, 0/4 treated with WBRT, and 1/15 treated with CSI. Survival analysis did not reveal DFS differences between the types of radiation field (p=0.785). HRQOL analysis (n=44) in our cohort found that, compared with S/SS+PG germinoma, patients with BG/T involvement had significantly lower scores in social and school domains. However, HRQOL difference between patients treated with CSI and those not treated with CSI was not significant.
In patients with non-metastatic bifocal germinoma, it is rational that CSI could be replaced by limited-field radiation. HRQOL in patients with BG/T involvement was poorer.


Germinoma; Bifocal germinoma; Radiotherapy; Quality of life
Full Text Links
  • CRT
export Copy
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
Copyright © 2022 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: