Lab Anim Res.  2020 Sep;36(3):288-292. 10.1186/s42826-020-00052-2.

Degenerative joint disease in the temporomandibular joint with fibrous ankylosis in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)

  • 1Seoul National University Dental Hospital, 103 Daehak-ro Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-799, Korea
  • 2Department of Pathology, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju, 361-763, Korea
  • 3Xenotransplantation Research Center, 103 Daehar-ro Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-799, Korea
  • 4Institute of Endemic Diseases, 103 Daehar-ro Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-799, Korea
  • 5Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-799, Korea


Ankylosis in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is known to have various etiologies in veterinary medicine. We observed a case of fibrous ankylosis of the TMJ in a newly imported rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).
Case presentation
Moderate to severe attrition was found in the middle labial portion of the left maxillary canine. No tenderness around the jaw was detected in the physical examination. The WBC count, CRP level, rheumatoid factor level, and other parameters were normal. Irregularity in the joint surface was observed in both TMJs in the radiographic and computed tomographic examinations, but the left TMJ presented more severe irregularity. It was determined that the removal of the locked portion of the left canine would alleviate the case of lockjaw and allow intubation with an endotracheal tube. Canine tooth crown reduction was performed for both canine teeth. The mouth opening distance slightly (approximately 5 mm) increased up to 20 mm. We concluded that the attrition of canine teeth was not the reason for lockjaw and ankyloses originating from TMJ disease. Fibrotic synovial tissue and joint surface irregularity were observed by necropsy. The presence of fibrocartilage in most areas of the TMJ was confirmed by histology. The diagnosis was fibrous ankylosis of the TMJ associated with DJD.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of degenerative joint disease of the TMJ in a rhesus monkey with fibrous ankylosis of the TMJ.


Fibrous ankylosis; Degenerative joint disease; Computed tomography; Temporomandibular joint; Rhesus monkey
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