Ann Occup Environ Med.  2020 ;32(1):e24. 10.35371/aoem.2020.32.e24.

Validation of urinary 1,2-dichloropropane concentration as a biological exposure index for workers exposed to 1,2-dichloropropane

  • 1Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ajou University Hospital, Suwon, Korea
  • 2Industrial Health and Work Environment Research Institute, Korean Industrial Health Association, Seoul, Korea
  • 3Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea
  • 4Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency, Ulsan, Korea
  • 5Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Wonju Severance Christian Hospital, Wonju, Korea


The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP) as a human carcinogen in 2016. It is necessary to establish a health monitoring system for workers exposed to 1,2-DCP. We investigated the correlation between 1,2-DCP concentration in air and urine to determine whether it is appropriate to measure 1,2-DCP in urine as a biological exposure index (BEI).
Twenty-seven workers from 3 manufacturing industries handling 1,2-DCP participated in this study. Airborne 1,2-DCP was collected by personal air. Urine samples were collected at the end of work and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Correlation analysis and simple regression analysis were performed to investigate the relationship between 1,2-DCP concentration in urine and air.
Pearson correlation coefficients between total 1,2-DCP in air and urine (uncorrected, creatinine-corrected) were 0.720 and 0.819, respectively. For urine samples analyzed within 2 weeks, the Spearman's rho of 1,2-DCP concentration in urine (uncorrected and creatinine-corrected) was 0.906 and 0.836, respectively. Simple regression analysis of 1,2-DCP in air and urinary 1,2-DCP concentrations within 2 weeks, which showed the highest correlation, revealed that the coefficient of determination of 1,2-DCP concentration in urine (uncorrected and creatinine-corrected) was 0.801 and 0.784, respectively.
As a BEI for workers exposed to 1,2-DCP, urinary 1,2-DCP without creatinine correction better reflects the exposure levels of 1,2-DCP in air.


Biological monitoring; 1,2-dichloropropane; Urinary 1,2-dichloropropane
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