Arch Craniofac Surg.  2020 Aug;21(4):225-228. 10.7181/acfs.2020.00297.

White radish and swine scapular cartilage models for auricular framework carving training

  • 1Department of Plastic Surgery, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, Korea


The aim of this study is to develop a two-stage training module using radish and swine scapular cartilage for carving ear cartilage.
In the first stage, white radish was cut in 3–6 mm thick slices. The ear cartilage framework was carved using a graver and the helix and antihelix were fixed with pins. In the second stage, swine scapular cartilage was obtained. The thickness varied 3–6 mm. The ear cartilage framework was made. And triangular fossa and scaphoid fossa were carved with graver. A curvilinear cartilage for helix was assembled to the framework by pin fixing. Six participants were recruited for an ear reconstruction training workshop and figures of the cartilage framework were provided. Participants were asked answer the pre-workshop questionnaire and post-workshop questionnaire on a Likert scale to rate their satisfaction with the outcome.
On the pre-workshop questionnaire, participants indicated that they did not have sufficient knowledge and skill for fabricating the ear cartilage framework (1.5± 0.5 using white radish; 1.3 ± 0.5 using swine scapular cartilage). On the post-workshop questionnaire, participants responded that they had learned useful knowledge from this workshop, reflecting a significant improvement (3.8± 1.0 using white radish; 4.0± 1.1 using swine scapular cartilage). They also indicated that they had become somewhat confident in this skill (4.2± 0.8 using white radish; 4.3± 0.5 using swine scapular cartilage. The participants generally found the workshop satisfactory (practically helpful, 4.7± 0.5; knowledge improved, 4.8± 0.4; satisfied with course, 4.5± 0.5; would recommend to others, 4.8± 0.4).
This model can be useful for ear reconstruction training for medical personnel.


Congenital microtia; Ear auricle; Education; Models, anatomic; Simulation
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