J Korean Acad Pediatr Dent.  2020 Aug;47(3):235-247. 10.5933/JKAPD.2020.47.3.235.

Study of Functional Appliance for Treatments of Children and Adolescents with Class II Malocclusion

  • 1Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Kyung Hee University Dental Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul, Korea


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects and optimal timing for treatment of class II malocclusion with functional appliances in children and adolescents. A group of 30 patients with class II malocclusion were divided into 3 groups according to their use of functional appliance: Twin block, Activator, Fränkel appliance. The group was also divided into 2 groups according to the cervical vertebrae maturation method. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were analyzed pretreatment (T0) and osttreatment(T1). Among the functional appliances, treatment with Twin block and Activator showed significant increase in the length of the mandible (Co-Gn) and the lower anterior facial height (ANS to Me), whereas the overjet and overbite were significantly reduced. Treatment with Fränkel appliance showed significant improvement in the relationship of maxilla and mandible. In addition, if the functional appliance was used during the period of pubertal growth peak, there was a significant increase in mandibular length, improvement in the relationship of maxilla and mandible, labial inclination of lower incisors and decrease in overjet compared to the treatment before pubertal growth peak. Therefore, this study indicates that using functional appliances for patients with class II malocclusion is effective and the optimal timing for using functional appliances is during pubertal growth peak.


Class II malocclusion; Functional appliance; Treatment timing
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