Korean J Fam Med.  2020 Mar;41(2):75-83. 10.4082/kjfm.18.0162.

Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Adults: A Concise Overview of an Evolving Disease

Affiliations
  • 1Gastroenterology Institute, Nazareth EMMS Hospital, Nazareth, Israel
  • 2The Azrieli Faculty of Medicine, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel
  • 3Gastroenterology and Hepatology Department, Evangelismos General Hospital of Athens, Athens, Greece
  • 4Gastroenterology and Liver Disease Department, Rambam Healthcare Campus, Haifa, Israel

Abstract

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disease that encompasses esophageal symptoms along with eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal epithelium. EoE is an evolving disease that has been a subject of interest to many researchers since the first studies recognized this condition as a new and distinct clinicopathological entity 25 years ago. Clinical presentation in adult patients may include dysphagia, food impaction, vomiting, and reflux symptoms. The diagnosis of EoE is based on the combination of clinical history suggestive of esophageal dysfunction, endoscopic features indicative of the disease, and histology revealing eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal epithelium that persists after a trial of proton pump inhibitor therapy along with the exclusion of other disorders that may be associated with esophageal tissue eosinophilia. The interplay between EoE and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is complex, and differentiating these two conditions continues to be difficult and challenging in clinical practice. The mainstay treatment includes dietary modification, topical steroids, and/or endoscopic dilation. The primary care physician (PCP) plays an important role in improving patient care and quality of life by ensuring early referral and participating in management and follow-up. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge base regarding the disease including epidemiology, genetics, pathogenesis, common clinical presentations, the interplay between EoE and GERD, diagnostic approaches, and therapeutic options available to the PCP.

Keyword

Eosinophilic Esophagitis; Diagnosis; Management; Primary Care Physicians
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