Clin Orthop Surg.  2020 Mar;12(1):43-48. 10.4055/cios.2020.12.1.43.

Contamination Rate of Burnt Necrotic Tissue after Electrocoagulation in Total Knee Arthroplasty

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Orthopaedics, Faculty of Medicine, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand. artitlao@gmail.com

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the commonly found catastrophic complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis, proper skin cleansing, shortened operative time, and sterility of surgical field and equipment are essential to minimize the risk of PJI. Although bacterial contamination of electrocautery tips has been reported, contamination of residual product of electrocoagulation, burnt necrotic tissue (BNT), is not well known. Therefore, we aimed to assess the contamination rate of BNT and association between contaminated BNT and PJI, and risk factors.
METHODS
BNTs from 183 patients who had undergone unilateral primary TKA at our institution were retrospectively analyzed. In each patient, three to five specimens of BNT were routinely collected in the operative field of primary TKA. Collecting time was defined as the duration from start of using the electrocautery device to the first collection of BNT.
RESULTS
Culture was positive in eight of 183 patients (4.4%; contaminated BNT group), and the most commonly isolated organism was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (62.5%). The average operative time was 103.1 ± 44.2 minutes in the contaminated BNT group and 79.0 ± 16.7 minutes in the non-contaminated BNT group (p = 0.17), and collecting time was 48.0 ± 44.3 minutes and 29.7 ± 17.0 minutes (p = 0.28), respectively. None of the patients with contaminated BNT developed PJI, whereas four patients with culture-negative BNT developed PJI within 2 postoperative years.
CONCLUSIONS
BNT in surgical field can become a reservoir of contaminating bacteria. However, contamination of BNT was not associated with PJI. Therefore, routine removal of all BNTs may be unnecessary.

Keyword

Knee; Prosthesis-related infections; Arthroplasty; Electrocoagulation; Surgical instruments

MeSH Terms

Antibiotic Prophylaxis
Arthroplasty
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee*
Bacteria
Electrocoagulation*
Humans
Infertility
Joints
Knee
Operative Time
Prosthesis-Related Infections
Retrospective Studies
Risk Factors
Skin
Staphylococcus
Surgical Instruments
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