Korean J Otorhinolaryngol-Head Neck Surg.  2019 Sep;62(9):499-506. 10.3342/kjorl-hns.2018.00773.

The Influence of Education Level on Tinnitus and Quality of Life in Korean Adults

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, Korea. kylee@knu.ac.kr

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
We aimed to evaluate the effect of the level of education on the prevalence of tinnitus and quality of life (QoL) in the Korean population.
SUBJECTS AND METHOD
Our study included 3155 participants from a representative sample. Tinnitus was measured using questionnaires that evaluated perception of ringing, buzzing, roaring, or hissing sounds. Participants were asked to indicate "Yes" or "No" to these questions. Participants who felt that the sensation was "A little annoying" or "Very annoying" were considered to have moderate or severe tinnitus, respectively. Hearing thresholds were measured using an automatic audiometer. QoL was evaluated using the EuroQoL (EQ) scale.
RESULTS
The number of participants in the low, middle, and high education groups were 1521, 967, and 667, respectively. Participants with any degree of tinnitus or moderate to severe tinnitus increased as the level of education decreased. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the low education group had significantly higher odds ratios compared to the middle or high education groups for moderate to severe tinnitus. Abnormal EQ 5-dimensions (EQ-5D) were higher in participants with tinnitus and a low level of education. For participants, univariate and multivariate analyses showed EQ-5D index and EQ-visual analog scale in the low education group were lower than that in the other groups.
CONCLUSION
Our study showed that low education level was associated with moderate to severe tinnitus in the Korean adult population. Participants with tinnitus and a low level of education had poorer QoL than those with tinnitus and a high level of education.

Keyword

Education; Hearing loss; Quality of life; Tinnitus

MeSH Terms

Adult*
Education*
Hearing
Hearing Loss
Humans
Logistic Models
Methods
Multivariate Analysis
Odds Ratio
Prevalence
Quality of Life*
Sensation
Tinnitus*
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