Anat Cell Biol.  2019 Sep;52(3):226-235. 10.5115/acb.18.213.

From papyrus leaves to bioprinting and virtual reality: history and innovation in anatomy

Affiliations
  • 1Division of Thoracic Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
  • 2Department of Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
  • 3Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA. bhartipaul@gmail.com

Abstract

The human quest to master the anatomy and physiology of living systems started as early as 1600 BC, with documents from the Greeks, Indians, and Romans presenting the earliest systematic studies and advances. Following the fall of the Roman Empire, the progress slowed until the Renaissance renewed scientific interest in anatomy and physiology, ushering in an era of spectacular advances. Alongside the discoveries of modern science, innovations in media such as printing, photography and color reproduction, improved the accuracy of communicating science. Techniques for noninvasively viewing the human body, such as magnetic resonance imaging, opened up new ways of exploring and understanding anatomy, physiology, and disease pathogenesis. Advances in three-dimensional (3D)-technologies, including computer graphics and animation are directly linked to many advances in medicine and surgery. Anatomy education has come a long way from papyrus leaf inscriptions to computerized 3D modeling, holographic representation, and virtual reality-based software. The future presents unlimited options for studying and understanding anatomy as Google glasses, bioprinting, virtual reality, and allied technologies transform the world into a classroom. This review summarizes the journey of mankind to master anatomy and physiology.

Keyword

History of anatomy; Visible human project; Bioprinting; 3D technologies; Virtual reality

MeSH Terms

Bioprinting*
Computer Graphics
Education
Eyeglasses
Glass
Human Body
Humans
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Photography
Physiology
Reproduction
Roman World
Full Text Links
  • ACB
Actions
Cited
CITED
export Copy
Close
Share
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
Copyright © 2022 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: koreamed@kamje.or.kr