J Nutr Health.  2019 Apr;52(2):227-241. 10.4163/jnh.2019.52.2.227.

Study on relationship between caffeine intake level and metabolic syndrome and related diseases in Korean adults: 2013 ~ 2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Food and Nutrition, Kookmin University, Seoul 02707, Korea. cmoon@kookmin.ac.kr

Abstract

PURPOSE
This study examined the relationship between caffeine intake and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults using the 2013 ~ 2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (KNHANES).
METHODS
The caffeine database (DB) developed by Food and Drug Safety Assessment Agency in 2014 was used to estimate the caffeine consumption. The food and beverage consumption of the 24 hr recall data of 2013 ~ 2016 KNHANES were matched to items in the caffeine DB and the daily caffeine intakes of the individuals were calculated. The sample was limited to non-pregnant healthy adults aged 19 years and older, who were not taking any medication for disease treatment.
RESULTS
The average daily caffeine intake was 41.97 mg, and the daily intake of caffeine of 97% of the participants was from coffee, teas, soft drinks, and other beverages. Multivariate analysis showed that the caffeine intake did not affect metabolic syndrome, hypertension, low HDL-cholesterol, and abdominal obesity. Diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia, however, were 0.76 (95% CI: 0.63 ~ 0.93), and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.77 ~ 0.98) in third quintile (Q3), and 0.66 (95% CI: 0.53 ~ 0.82) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.73 ~ 0.94) in fourth quintile (Q4) compared to Q1, respectively. Therefore, caffeine intake of 3.66 ~ 45.81 mg per day is related to a lower risk of diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia.
CONCLUSION
The study showed that adequate caffeine intake (approximately 45 mg) was associated with a lower prevalence of diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia. Therefore, it can be used as a guideline for the adequate level of caffeine intake for maintaining health.

Keyword

caffeine; metabolic syndrome; diabetes; hypertriglyceridemia; KNHANES

MeSH Terms

Adult*
Beverages
Caffeine*
Carbonated Beverages
Coffee
Humans
Hypertension
Hypertriglyceridemia
Korea*
Multivariate Analysis
Nutrition Surveys*
Obesity, Abdominal
Prevalence
Tea
Caffeine
Coffee
Tea
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