J Dent Anesth Pain Med.  2019 Apr;19(2):101-109. 10.17245/jdapm.2019.19.2.101.

Pain perception and efficacy of local analgesia using 2% lignocaine, buffered lignocaine, and 4% articaine in pediatric dental procedures

  • 1Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, UCMS (University of Delhi) & GTB Hospital, Delhi, India. Khatri9804@rediffmail.com


The purpose of this study was to compare the pain perception and anesthetic efficacy of 2% lignocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine, buffered lignocaine, and 4% articaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine for the inferior alveolar nerve block.
This was a double-blind crossover study involving 48 children aged 5-10 years, who received three inferior alveolar nerve block injections in three appointments scheduled one week apart from the next. Pain on injection was assessed using the Wong-Baker Faces pain scale and the sound eye motor scale (SEM). Efficacy of anesthesia was assessed by subjective (tingling or numbness of the lip, tongue, and corner of mouth) and objective signs (pain on probing).
Pain perception on injection assessed with Wong-Baker scale was significantly different between buffered lignocaine and lignocaine (P < 0.001) and between buffered lignocaine and articaine (P = 0.041). The onset of anesthesia was lowest for buffered lignocaine, with a statistically significant difference between buffered lignocaine and lignocaine (P < 0.001). Moreover, the efficacy of local analgesia assessed using objective signs was significantly different between buffered lignocaine and lignocaine (P < 0.001) and between lignocaine and articaine.
Buffered lignocaine was the least painful and the most efficacious anesthetic agent during the inferior alveolar nerve block injection in 5-10-year-old patients.


Articaine; Buffers; Lignocaine; Pain Scale

MeSH Terms

Appointments and Schedules
Cross-Over Studies
Mandibular Nerve
Pain Perception*


  • Fig. 1 Wong-Baker FACES® Pain Rating Scale


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