J Adv Prosthodont.  2018 Dec;10(6):430-439. 10.4047/jap.2018.10.6.430.

Advancements in craniofacial prosthesis fabrication: A narrative review of holistic treatment

  • 1Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
  • 2Department of Endodontics, Prosthodontics and Operative Dentistry, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD, USA.
  • 3Department of Oral Rehabilitation, Division of Endodontics, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.
  • 4Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI, USA. lobat.tayebi@marquette.edu
  • 5Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Dentistry, New York Presbyterian Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York City, NY, USA.
  • 6Department of Prosthodontics, Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI, USA.


The treatment of craniofacial anomalies has been challenging as a result of technological shortcomings that could not provide a consistent protocol to perfectly restore patient-specific anatomy. In the past, wax-up and impression-based maneuvers were implemented to achieve this clinical end. However, with the advent of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology, a rapid and cost-effective workflow in prosthetic rehabilitation has taken the place of the outdated procedures. Because the use of implants is so profound in different facets of restorative dentistry, their placement for craniofacial prosthesis retention has also been widely popular and advantageous in a variety of clinical settings. This review aims to effectively describe the well-rounded and interdisciplinary practice of craniofacial prosthesis fabrication and retention by outlining fabrication, osseointegrated implant placement for prosthesis retention, a myriad of clinical examples in the craniofacial complex, and a glimpse of the future of bioengineering principles to restore bioactivity and physiology to the previously defected tissue.


Craniofacial; Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM); Prosthesis; Implants; Bioengineering
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