Nutr Res Pract.  2018 Aug;12(4):324-335. 10.4162/nrp.2018.12.4.324.

Dietary intake of fat and fatty acids by 1–5-year-old children in Korea: a cross-sectional study based on data from the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Human Ecology, Korea National Open University, Seoul 03087, Korea.
  • 2Department of Food and Nutrition, Daejeon University, Daejeon 34520, Korea.
  • 3Department of Food and Nutrition, Hannam University, 1646 yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34054, Korea. sjsong@hnu.kr

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES
We examined dietary fat intake and the major food sources by young children in Korea.
SUBJECTS/METHODS
A total of 1,041 children aged 1-5 years were identified from the 2013-2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data on total fat and fatty acid intake were obtained by a single 24-h dietary recall. Food sources were identified based on the amounts of total fat and fatty acids consumption according to each food. Fat and fatty acid intakes and their food sources were presented by age group (1-2-y, n = 401; 3-5-y, n = 640). Fat and fatty acid intakes were also evaluated according to socioeconomic characteristics.
RESULTS
The mean intake of fat was 27.1 ± 0.8 g in the 1-2-y group and 35.5 ± 0.7 g in the 3-5-y group, and about 23% of the total energy was obtained from fat in both age groups. The mean intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) was 10.5 ± 0.3 g in the 1-2-y group and 12.7 ± 0.3 g in the 3-5-y group, with the 1-2-y group obtaining more energy from SFA than the 3-5-y group (9.2% vs. 8.3%). The mean intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was 6.3 ± 0.1 g in the total subjects, with 0.8 ± 0.03 g of n-3 fatty acids and 5.5 ± 0.1 g of n-6 fatty acids being consumed. Milk, pork, and eggs were major food sources of total fat, SFA, and monounsaturated fatty acids, and soybean oil was the main contributor to PUFA in both age groups. In the 1-2-y group, children in rural areas had significantly higher intake of PUFA and n-3 fatty acids than did those in urban areas.
CONCLUSIONS
Our findings provide current information on dietary fat intake among young Korean children and could be used to establish dietary strategies for improvement of health status.

Keyword

Dietary fats; child; preschool; Korea

MeSH Terms

Child*
Cross-Sectional Studies*
Dietary Fats
Eggs
Fatty Acids*
Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated
Fatty Acids, Omega-3
Fatty Acids, Omega-6
Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
Humans
Korea*
Milk
Nutrition Surveys*
Ovum
Red Meat
Soybean Oil
Dietary Fats
Fatty Acids
Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated
Fatty Acids, Omega-3
Fatty Acids, Omega-6
Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
Soybean Oil
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