J Adv Prosthodont.  2017 Dec;9(6):439-446. 10.4047/jap.2017.9.6.439.

Influence of different surface treatments on bond strength of novel CAD/CAM restorative materials to resin cement

  • 1Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Ordu University, Turkey. aycatulga@odu.edu.tr


To evaluate the effects of different surface treatments on the bond strength of novel CAD/CAM restorative materials to resin cement by four point bending test.
The CAD/CAM materials under investigation were e.max CAD, Mark II, Lava Ultimate, and Enamic. A total of 400 bar specimens (4×1.2×12 mm) (n=10) milled from the CAD/CAM blocks underwent various pretreatments (no pretreatment (C), hydrofluoric acid (A), hydrofluoric acid + universal adhesive (Scotchbond) (AS), sandblasting (Sb), and sandblasting + universal adhesive (SbS)). The bars were luted end-to-end on the prepared surfaces with a dual curing adhesive resin cement (Variolink N, Ivoclar Vivadent) on the custom-made stainless steel mold. Ten test specimens for each treatment and material combination were performed with four point bending test method. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test.
The surface treatment and type of CAD/CAM restorative material showed a significant effect on the four point bending strength (FPBS) (P < .001). For LDC, AS surface treatment showed the highest FPBS results (100.31 ± 10.7 MPa) and the lowest values were obtained in RNC (23.63 ± 9.0 MPa) for control group. SEM analyses showed that the surface topography of CAD/CAM restorative materials was modified after treatments.
The surface treatment of sandblasting or HF acid etching in combination with a universal adhesive containing MDP can be suggested for the adhesive cementation of the novel CAD/CAM restorative materials.


Adhesive cementation; Four point bending test; Resin nano ceramic; Polymer infiltrated ceramic network; Surface treatments; Universal adhesive

MeSH Terms

Hydrofluoric Acid
Resin Cements*
Stainless Steel
Hydrofluoric Acid
Resin Cements
Stainless Steel


  • Fig. 1 Schematic drawing illustrating the study set-up and specimen preparation procedure.

  • Fig. 2 (A) A custom made stainless steel mold was used for cementation. After screwing down the instrument for cementation, the distance of separated two fragments was 4 mm; (B) Setting the specimens end to end to the mold; (C) Cementation of a pair of specimens.

  • Fig. 3 The custom made device for four point bending test and experimental setup of the test.


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