Asian Spine J.  2017 Oct;11(5):770-779. 10.4184/asj.2017.11.5.770.

Normal Age-Adjusted Sagittal Spinal Alignment Is Achieved with Surgical Correction in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

Affiliations
  • 1Division of Spine Surgery, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, NY, USA. Norah.Foster@nyumc.org

Abstract

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. PURPOSE: Our hypothesis is that the surgical correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) maintains normal sagittal alignment as compared to age-matched normative adolescent population. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Sagittal spino-pelvic alignment in AIS has been reported, however, whether corrective spinal fusion surgery re-establishes normal alignment remains unverified.
METHODS
Sagittal profiles and spino-pelvic parameters of thirty-eight postsurgical correction AIS patients ≤21 years old without prior fusion from a single institution database were compared to previously published normative age-matched data. Coronal and sagittal measurements including structural coronal Cobb angle, pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, sagittal vertical axis, C2-C7 cervical lordosis, C2-C7 sagittal vertical axis, and T1 pelvic angles were measured on standing full-body stereoradiographs using validated software to compare preoperative and 6 months postoperative changes with previously published adolescent norms. A sub-group analysis of patients with type 1 Lenke curves was performed comparing preoperative to postoperative alignment and also comparing this with previously published normative values.
RESULTS
The mean coronal curve of the 38 AIS patients (mean age, 16±2.2 years; 76.3% female) was corrected from 53.6° to 9.6° (80.9%, p<0.01). None of the thoracic and spino-pelvic sagittal parameters changed significantly after surgery in previously hypo- and normo-kyphotic patients. In hyper-kyphotic patients, thoracic kyphosis decreased (p=0.003) with a reciprocal decrease in lumbar lordosis (p=0.01), thus lowering pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis mismatch mismatch (p=0.009). Structural thoracic scoliosis patients had slightly more thoracic kyphosis than age-matched patients at baseline and surgical correction of the coronal plane of their scoliosis preserved normal sagittal alignment postoperatively. A sub-analysis of Lenke curve type 1 patients (n=24) demonstrated no statistically significant changes in the sagittal alignment postoperatively despite adequate coronal correction.
CONCLUSIONS
Surgical correction of the coronal plane in AIS patients preserves sagittal and spino-pelvic alignment as compared to age-matched asymptomatic adolescents.

Keyword

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; Spinal fusion; Sagittal alignment; Spinal alignment

MeSH Terms

Adolescent*
Animals
Humans
Incidence
Kyphosis
Lordosis
Retrospective Studies
Scoliosis*
Spinal Fusion
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