J Periodontal Implant Sci.  2017 Aug;47(4):251-262. 10.5051/jpis.2017.47.4.251.

Effects of implant tilting and the loading direction on the displacement and micromotion of immediately loaded implants: an in vitro experiment and finite element analysis

  • 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nara Medical University, Nara, Japan. sugiurat@naramed-u.ac.jp
  • 2Applied Electronics Laboratory, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of implant tilting and the loading direction on the displacement and micromotion (relative displacement between the implant and bone) of immediately loaded implants by in vitro experiments and finite element analysis (FEA).
Six artificial bone blocks were prepared. Six screw-type implants with a length of 10 mm and diameter of 4.3 mm were placed, with 3 positioned axially and 3 tilted. The tilted implants were 30° distally inclined to the axial implants. Vertical and mesiodistal oblique (45° angle) loads of 200 N were applied to the top of the abutment, and the abutment displacement was recorded. Nonlinear finite element models simulating the in vitro experiment were constructed, and the abutment displacement and micromotion were calculated. The data on the abutment displacement from in vitro experiments and FEA were compared, and the validity of the finite element model was evaluated.
The abutment displacement was greater under oblique loading than under axial loading and greater for the tilted implants than for the axial implants. The in vitro and FEA results showed satisfactory consistency. The maximum micromotion was 2.8- to 4.1-fold higher under oblique loading than under vertical loading. The maximum micromotion values in the axial and tilted implants were very close under vertical loading. However, in the tilted implant model, the maximum micromotion was 38.7% less than in the axial implant model under oblique loading. The relationship between abutment displacement and micromotion varied according to the loading direction (vertical or oblique) as well as the implant insertion angle (axial or tilted).
Tilted implants may have a lower maximum extent of micromotion than axial implants under mesiodistal oblique loading. The maximum micromotion values were strongly influenced by the loading direction. The maximum micromotion values did not reflect the abutment displacement values.


Dental implants; Finite element analysis; Immediate dental implant loading

MeSH Terms

Dental Implants
Finite Element Analysis*
Immediate Dental Implant Loading
In Vitro Techniques*
Dental Implants


  • Figure 1 Artificial bone block and implant. (A) Axial implant and straight abutment. (B) Tilted implant and angulated abutment.

  • Figure 2 Experimental set-up of the axial implant model. (A) Vertical loading. (B) Forty-five-degree mesiodistal oblique loading. For all the artificial bone specimens, only the lower part of the lateral sides of the cancellous bone layer was clamped with metal plates (arrows).

  • Figure 3 Finite element model of the implant, abutment, and artificial bone block. (A) Axial implant model. (B) Tilted implant model.

  • Figure 4 Meshed model of the artificial bone block with an axial implant. Vertical and 45° oblique loading were simulated. The nodes of the lower part of the lateral sides were constrained, simulating the conditions of the in vitro experiment.

  • Figure 5 Abutment displacement obtained by the in vitro experiment and FEA. (A) Vertical loading. (B) Oblique loading. FEA: finite element analysis.

  • Figure 6 Displacement of the implant and abutment under loading. The artificial bone block, implant, and abutment before deformation are also illustrated. The circles indicate where the maximum micromotion was observed in the model. Yellow arrows indicate the direction of the displacement of the implant relative to the surrounding bone in the apex region.

  • Figure 7 Maximum micromotion of implants.


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