Korean J Parasitol.  2015 Jun;53(3):271-277. 10.3347/kjp.2015.53.3.271.

Genetic Diversity of Schistosoma haematobium Eggs Isolated from Human Urine in Sudan

  • 1Department of Gastroenterology, The Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical College, Zhanjiang 524-001, Guangdong, China.
  • 2Department of Infection Biology, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon 301-131, Korea. yhalee@cnu.ac.kr
  • 3National Control Program for Neglected Tropical Diseases, Federal Ministry of Health, Sudan.
  • 4Korea Association of Health Promotion (KAHP), Seoul 157-705, Korea.
  • 5Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799, Korea.
  • 6Department of Environmental Medical Biology and Institute of Tropical Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752, Korea.


The genetic diversity of Schistosoma haematobium remains largely unstudied in comparison to that of Schistosoma mansoni. To characterize the extent of genetic diversity in S. haematobium among its definitive host (humans), we collected S. haematobium eggs from the urine of 73 infected schoolchildren at 5 primary schools in White Nile State, Sudan, and then performed a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA marker ITS2 by PCR-RFLP analysis. Among 73 S. haematobium egg-positive cases, 13 were selected based on the presence of the S. haematobium satellite markers A4 and B2 in their genomic DNA, and used for RFLP analysis. The 13 samples were subjected to an RFLP analysis of the S. haematobium ITS2 region; however, there was no variation in size among the fragments. Compared to the ITS2 sequences obtained for S. haematobium from Kenya, the nucleotide sequences of the ITS2 regions of S. haematobium from 4 areas in Sudan were consistent with those from Kenya (> 99%). In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that most of the S. haematobium population in Sudan consists of a pan-African S. haematobium genotype; however, we also report the discovery of Kenyan strain inflow into White Nile, Sudan.


Schistosoma haematobium; Sudan; ITS2; PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)
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