Pediatr Emerg Med J.  2016 Dec;3(2):37-42. 10.22470/pemj.2016.3.2.37.

Tumor lysis syndrome

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Pediatrics, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. taban@hanmail.net

Abstract

Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is an oncologic emergency due to the rapid lysis of tumor cells and subsequent release of large amounts of intracellular potassium, phosphate, and uric acid into the bloodstream. Precipitation of uric acid and/or calcium phosphate crystals in the renal tubules can result in acute kidney injury. TLS is frequently observed in children with malignancy, which has high tumor burden, rapid cell turnover or high chemosensitivity (particularly, Burkitt's lymphoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia), following the initiation of cytotoxic therapy. The current recommendations for prophylaxis and management are based on the TLS risk stratification. It is essential to administer adequate fluid and hypouricemic agents (allopurinol and/or rasburicase) to prevent acute kidney injury. In children susceptible to TLS, prompt diagnosis and aggressive treatment, such as renal replacement therapy, should be performed through close monitoring.

Keyword

Acute Kidney Injury; Child; Hyperkalemia; Hyperphosphatemia; Hyperuricemia; Hypocalcemia; Monitoring, Physiologic; Prevention, Primary; Tumor Lysis Syndrome

MeSH Terms

Acute Kidney Injury
Burkitt Lymphoma
Calcium
Child
Diagnosis
Emergencies
Humans
Hyperkalemia
Hyperphosphatemia
Hyperuricemia
Hypocalcemia
Monitoring, Physiologic
Potassium
Primary Prevention
Renal Replacement Therapy
Tumor Burden
Tumor Lysis Syndrome*
Uric Acid
Calcium
Potassium
Uric Acid
Full Text Links
  • PEMJ
Actions
Cited
CITED
export Copy
Close
Share
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
    DB Error: unknown error