J Nurs Acad Soc.  1987 Apr;17(1):24-32.

Nurses' Role Models, Perceptions Toward Occupation, Self-Actualization Value and the Phases of Socialization Process


This study was designed to investigate the changes of nurses' role model, perceptions toward occupation, and self-actualization value in terms of the phases of socialization process. Two hundred and sixty nine nurses working in clinical settings were randomly selected from 15 general hospitals despersed over Seoul and Kyungki province. Data were gathered by the standardized Perceptual Orientation Test, the Self-actualization Test, and Questionnaires on role models and phases of socialization process developed by the investigators from October 1985 to March 1986. The data were analysed by ANOVA and Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. The results were as follows: 1. The average time period required for the shift of phases of socialization process were; phase I, role adjustment, took average 10 months of employment; phase II, interpersonal adjustment, 12 months; and Phase III, role conflict, 15 months respectively. Conflict resolution, phase IV began to take place 18 months of employment; and shifted to phase V, internalization and self-actualization at 25 months of employment. 2. Throughout 5 consecutive phases, the number of immediate superior nurse model was dominantly the highest among the role models. The number of head nurse role model increased at phase II, phase HI, and phase IV. Respondents with school model in phase I tended to transfer to work model at phase II. 3. The perceptions toward occupation were not significantly influenced by the phases of socialization process. 4. The score of self-actualization value was not significantly influenced by the phases of socialization process. 5. In regard to perceptions toward occupation, nursing director model group showed significantly lower score in phase I (p<. 01). 6. The comparison of self-actualization value between the 5 phases revealed significant difference in phase I; in particular among respondents with school model at p<. 05. To conclude: 1. The phase III of socialization process is the period of role conflict which occur at 15 months of employment, and conflict resolution, phase IV, begins at 18 months of employment on the average in clinical settings.2. The immediate superior nurse and the head nurse are lmportant role models for nurses all through their socialization process.

MeSH Terms

Hospitals, General
Nursing, Supervisory
Surveys and Questionnaires
Research Personnel
Surveys and Questionnaires
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