Ann Rehabil Med.  2014 Dec;38(6):752-758. 10.5535/arm.2014.38.6.752.

The Differences in Clinical Aspect Between Specific Language Impairment and Global Developmental Delay

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Korea. ezstory21@naver.com
  • 2Department of Pediatrics, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Korea.
  • 3Department of Psychiatry, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Korea.

Abstract


OBJECTIVE
To compare and analyze the clinical characteristics of children with delayed language acquisition due to two different diagnoses, which were specific language impairment (SLI, a primarily delayed language development) and global developmental delay (GDD, a language delay related to cognitive impairment).
METHODS
Among 1,598 children who had visited the developmental delay clinic from March 2005 to February 2011, 467 children who were diagnosed with GDD and 183 children who were diagnosed with SLI were included in this study. All children were questioned about past, family, and developmental history, and their language competences and cognitive function were assessed. Some children got electroencephalography (EEG), in case of need.
RESULTS
The presence of the perinatal risk factors showed no difference in two groups. In the children with GDD, they had more delayed acquisition of independent walking and more frequent EEG abnormalities compared with the children with SLI (p<0.01). The positive family history of delayed language development was more prevalent in children with SLI (p<0.01). In areas of language ability, the quotient of receptive language and expressive language did not show any meaningful statistical differences between the two groups. Analyzing in each group, the receptive language quotient was higher than expressive language quotient in both group (p<0.01). In the GDD group, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II) showed a marked low mental and motor quotient while the Wechsler Intelligence Scale showed low verbal and nonverbal IQ. In the SLI group, the BSID-II and Wechsler Intelligence Scale showed low scores in mental area and verbal IQ but sparing motor area and nonverbal IQ.
CONCLUSION
The linguistic profiles of children with language delay could not differentiate between SLI and GDD. The clinicians needed to be aware of these developmental issues, and history taking and clinical evaluation, including cognitive assessment, could be helpful to diagnose adequately and set the treatment plan for each child.

Keyword

Language development; Specific language impairment; Global developmental delay

MeSH Terms

Child
Child Development
Diagnosis
Electroencephalography
Humans
Intelligence
Language
Language Development
Language Development Disorders
Linguistics
Risk Factors
Walking
Weights and Measures

Cited by  2 articles

Effects of Copy Number Variations on Developmental Aspects of Children With Delayed Development
Kee-Boem Park, Kyung Eun Nam, Ah-Ra Cho, Woori Jang, Myungshin Kim, Joo Hyun Park
Ann Rehabil Med. 2019;43(2):215-223.    doi: 10.5535/arm.2019.43.2.215.

Correlation of Language Assessment Batteries of Toddlers With Developmental Language Delay
Jin A Yoon, Shin Wook An, Ye Seul Choi, Jae Sik Seo, Seon Jun Yoon, Soo-Yeon Kim, Yong Beom Shin
Ann Rehabil Med. 2022;46(5):256-262.    doi: 10.5535/arm.22045.


Reference

1. Kim MS, Kim JK. Assessment of children with developmental delay: Korean-ages & stages questionnaires(K-ASQ) and Bayley Scales of Infant Development test II(BSID-II). J Korean Child Neurol Soc. 2010; 18:49–57.
2. Lee JJ. Effect of women's first childbearing age on the risk of low birth weight. Korean J Pediatr. 2007; 50:1206–1211.
Article
3. Jolly M, Sebire N, Harris J, Robinson S, Regan L. The risks associated with pregnancy in women aged 35 years or older. Hum Reprod. 2000; 15:2433–2437. PMID: 11056148.
Article
4. Cho SR, Park ES, Park CI, Kwak EH, Kim MK, Min KH, et al. Relationship of language, intelligent and social quotients in children with speech and language disorder. J Korean Acad Rehabil Med. 2008; 32:129–134.
5. Kwon JY, Kim JS, Woo AM, Kim HJ, Chung ME, Kim HS, et al. Diagnosis of speech disorder and language developmental delay in Korean preschoolers. J Korean Acad Rehabil Med. 2006; 30:309–314.
6. Majnemer A. Benefits of early intervention for children with developmental disabilities. Semin Pediatr Neurol. 1998; 5:62–69. PMID: 9548643.
Article
7. Park CI, Park ES, Shin JC, Kim SW, Choi EH. Early treatment effect in children with cerebral palsy and delayed development. J Korean Acad Rehabil Med. 1999; 23:1127–1133.
8. Shevell M, Majnemer A, Platt RW, Webster R, Birnbaum R. Developmental and functional outcomes in children with global developmental delay or developmental language impairment. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2005; 47:678–683. PMID: 16174311.
Article
9. Majnemer A, Shevell MI. Diagnostic yield of the neurologic assessment of the developmentally delayed child. J Pediatr. 1995; 127:193–199. PMID: 7543566.
Article
10. Shevell MI. Present conceptualization of early childhood neurodevelopmental disabilities. J Child Neurol. 2010; 25:120–126. PMID: 19738235.
Article
11. Kim SW, Shin JB, You S, Yang EJ, Lee SK, Chung HJ, et al. Diagnosis and clinical features of children with language delay. J Korean Acad Rehabil Med. 2005; 29:584–590.
12. Kim SW, Kim YK, Chung HJ. Well baby clinic: developmental guidance according to the parent's chief complaints. J Korean Med Assoc. 2009; 52:244–261.
Article
13. Shevell M, Ashwal S, Donley D, Flint J, Gingold M, Hirtz D, et al. Practice parameter: evaluation of the child with global developmental delay: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and The Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society. Neurology. 2003; 60:367–380. PMID: 12578916.
14. Council on Children With Disabilities. Section on Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics. Bright Futures Steering Committee. Medical Home Initiatives for Children With Special Needs Project Advisory Committee. Identifying infants and young children with developmental disorders in the medical home: an algorithm for developmental surveillance and screening. Pediatrics. 2006; 118:405–420. PMID: 16818591.
15. Riou EM, Ghosh S, Francoeur E, Shevell MI. Global developmental delay and its relationship to cognitive skills. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2009; 51:600–606. PMID: 19627332.
Article
16. Prelock PA, Hutchins T, Glascoe FP. Speech-language impairment: how to identify the most common and least diagnosed disability of childhood. Medscape J Med. 2008; 10:136.
17. Kim SW, Shin JB, Bae MS, Chung HJ, Kim YK, Song JH. Effects of speech therapy in children with specific language impairment and mild intellectual disability. J Korean Acad Rehabil Med. 2011; 35:48–54.
18. Shevell M. Global developmental delay and mental retardation or intellectual disability: conceptualization, evaluation, and etiology. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2008; 55:1071–1084. xiPMID: 18929052.
Article
19. Bishop DV, Holt G, Line E, McDonald D, McDonald S, Watt H. Parental phonological memory contributes to prediction of outcome of late talkers from 20 months to 4 years: a longitudinal study of precursors of specific language impairment. J Neurodev Disord. 2012; 4:3. PMID: 22958373.
Article
20. Stromswold K. Genetics of spoken language disorders. Hum Biol. 1998; 70:297–324. PMID: 9549241.
21. Webster RI, Shevell MI. Neurobiology of specific language impairment. J Child Neurol. 2004; 19:471–481. PMID: 15526950.
22. Bayley N. Bayley Scales of Infant Development: manual. 2nd ed. New York: Psychological Corp.;1993.
Full Text Links
  • ARM
Actions
Cited
CITED
export Copy
Close
Share
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
Copyright © 2023 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: koreamed@kamje.or.kr