Korean J Fertil Steril.  2000 Mar;27(1):23-30.

Human Amniotic Fluid Induces Spontaneous Hardening of the Zona Pellucida of Mouse Immature Oocytes During Maturation In Vitro

Abstract


OBJECTIVE
Zona pellucida (ZP) has been thought to be the barrier of egg to sperm penetration before and after fertilization. The phenomenon of ZP hardening has been considered as a post-fertilization event until now, and it is generally accepted that it is caused by the secretory products of cortical granules released during the cortical reaction. Hardening of ZP could occur "spontaneously" in mammalian oocytes of our study was to investigate the effect of a consequence of cortical reaction. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of human amniotic fluid (HAF) on nuclear maturation (NM) and fertilization ability of mouse immature oocytes.
METHODS
HAF was obtained from patients undergoing amniocentesis at 16~20 weeks of gestation. HAF from five to ten patients was centrifuged and the supernatants was pooled. Cumulusenclosed mouse immature oocytes were incubated in the medium containing HAF, and examined to confirm NM and fertilization. Female ICR mice (about 3 weeks old) were stimulated with 7.5 IU PMSG. Immature oocytes were isolated at 4 8~52 hrs post PMSG injection and cultured in TCM-199 supplemented with 20% HAF for 18 hrf. FBS was used as a control for the examination. Matured oocytes (MII) were fertilized with sperms collected from the epididymis of male mice (over 10 weeks old). Fertilization was in conducted T6 medium containing 15 mg/ml BSA, and confirmed at 6 hrs post-insemination. Evaluation of NM and fertilization was carried out by rapid staining method. ZP hardening was evaluated by incubating cumulus cell-free mature oocytes in 0.001% chymotrypsin at 37degrees C for 10 min.
RESULTS
There was no significant difference between the effects of HAF (86.6%) and FBS (87.7%) supplements on NM of immature oocytes. When maturation medium was supplemented with HAF, total fertilization rates (7%) were significantly lower (p<0.01) than that of FBS (85.1%). In HAF group, fertilization rate was increased (p<0.01) in zona-free oocytes (7% versus 100%). The resistance of mouse oocyte ZP to digestion by chymotrypsin after maturation in vitro was significantly higher (p<0.01) in HAF group (86.7) than in FBS (6.7%). To culture oocytes in FBS were very effective in preventing ZP hardening. However cultured oocytes in HAF showed high rate of ZP hardening (p<0.01).
CONCLUSIONS
These results suggest that HAF can be used as a supplement for the NM of mouse immature oocytes in vitro. However, HAF induces spontaneous hardening of ZP of mouse immaure oocytes during maturation in vitro.


MeSH Terms

Amniocentesis
Amniotic Fluid*
Animals
Chymotrypsin
Digestion
Epididymis
Female
Fertilization
Herpes Zoster*
Humans*
Male
Mice*
Mice, Inbred ICR
Oocytes*
Ovum
Pregnancy
Sperm-Ovum Interactions
Spermatozoa
Zona Pellucida*
Chymotrypsin
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