J Korean Acad Prosthodont.  2003 Apr;41(2):182-206.

A study on the measurement of the implant stability using resonance frequency analysis

  • 1Department of Prosthodontics College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Korea. navydent@kangnung.ac.kr


STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Successful osseointegration of endosseous threaded implants is dependent on many factors. These may include the surface characteristics and gross geometry of implants, the quality and quantity of bone where implants are placed, and the magnitude and direction of stress in functional occlusion. Therefore clinical quantitative measurement of primary stability at placement and functional state of implant may play a role in prediction of possible clinical symptoms and the renovation of implant geometry, types and surface characteristic according to each patients conditions. Ultimately, it may increase success rate of implants. PURPOSE: Many available non-invasive techniques used for the clinical measurement of implant stability and osseointegration include percussion, radiography, the Periotest., Dental Fine Tester. and so on. There is, however, relatively little research undertaken to standardize quantitative measurement of stability of implant and osseointegration due to the various clinical applications performed by each individual operator. Therefore, in order to develop non-invasive experimental method to measure stability of implant quantitatively, the resonance frequency analyzer to measure the natural frequency of specific substance was developed in the procedure of this study. MATERIAL AND METHOD: To test the stability of the resonance frequency analyzer developed in this study, following methods and materials were used: 1) In-vitro study: the implant was placed in both epoxy resin of which physical properties are similar to the bone stiffness of human and fresh cow rib bone specimen. Then the resonance frequency values of them were measured and analyzed. In an attempt to test the reliability of the data gathered with the resonance frequency analyzer, comparative analysis with the data from the Periotest was conducted. 2) In-vivo study: the implants were inserted into the tibiae of 10 New Zealand rabbits and the resonance frequency value of them with connected abutments at healing time are measured immediately after insertion and gauged every 4 weeks for 16 weeks. RESULTS: Results from these studies were such as follows: The same length implants placed in Hot Melt showed the repetitive resonance frequency values. As the length of abutment increased, the resonance frequency value changed significantly (p<0.01). As the thickness of transducer increased in order of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mm, the resonance frequency value significantly increased (p<0.05). The implants placed in PL-2 and epoxy resin with different exposure degree resulted in the increase of resonance frequency value as the exposure degree of implants and the length of abutment decreased. In comparative experiment based on physical properties, as the thickness of transducer increased, the resonance frequency value increased significantly(p<0.01). As the stiffness of substances where implants were placed increased, and the effective length of implants decreased, the resonance frequencies value increased significantly (p<0.05). In the experiment with cow rib bone specimen, the increase of the length of abutment resulted in significant difference between the results from resonance frequency analyzer and the Periotest.. There was no difference with significant meaning in the comparison based on the direction of measurement between the resonance frequency value and the Periotest. value (p<0.05). In-vivo experiment resulted in repetitive patternes of resonance frequency. As the time elapsed, the resonance frequency value increased significantly with the exception of 4th and 8th week (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The development of resonance frequency analyzer is an attempt to standardize the quantitative measurement of stability of implant and osseointegration and compensate for the reliability of data from other non-invasive measuring devices. It is considered that further research is needed to improve the efficiency of clinical application of resonance frequency analyzer. In addition, further investigation is warranted on the standardized quantitative analysis of the stability of implant.


Non-invasive; Resonance frequency; Resonance frequency Analyzer

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