Clin Exp Vaccine Res.  2014 Jan;3(1):58-77. 10.7774/cevr.2014.3.1.58.

Zoonotic encephalitides caused by arboviruses: transmission and epidemiology of alphaviruses and flaviviruses

Affiliations
  • 1Virus Research and Testing Group, Division of Drug Discovery Research, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon, Korea. yygo@krict.re.kr
  • 2Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center, Department of Veterinary Science, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.
  • 3Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

Abstract

In this review, we mainly focus on zoonotic encephalitides caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) of the families Flaviviridae (genus Flavivirus) and Togaviridae (genus Alphavirus) that are important in both humans and domestic animals. Specifically, we will focus on alphaviruses (Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus) and flaviviruses (Japanese encephalitis virus and West Nile virus). Most of these viruses were originally found in tropical regions such as Africa and South America or in some regions in Asia. However, they have dispersed widely and currently cause diseases around the world. Global warming, increasing urbanization and population size in tropical regions, faster transportation and rapid spread of arthropod vectors contribute in continuous spreading of arboviruses into new geographic areas causing reemerging or resurging diseases. Most of the reemerging arboviruses also have emerged as zoonotic disease agents and created major public health issues and disease epidemics.

Keyword

Arthropod-borne viruses; Arboviruses; Alphaviruses; Flaviviruses; Equine Encephalomyelitis; Encephalitis; Zoonoses

MeSH Terms

Africa
Alphavirus*
Animals, Domestic
Arboviruses*
Arthropod Vectors
Asia
Encephalitis
Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine
Encephalitis Virus, Western Equine
Encephalitis Viruses
Encephalomyelitis, Equine
Epidemiology*
Flaviviridae
Flavivirus*
Global Warming
Humans
Population Density
Public Health
South America
Togaviridae
Transportation
Urbanization
Zoonoses
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