Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg.  2003 Mar;36(3):123-130.

Establishment of the Heart Failure Model in Swine for the Experiment of the Pneumatic Ventricular Assist Device

  • 1Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Dankook University Hospital, Korea. samhkim@dku.edu
  • 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Dankook University Hospital, Korea.
  • 3Department of Anesthesiology, Dankook University Hospital, Korea.


BACKGROUND: In order to develop the acute heart failure model for the animal experiment of the pneumatic ventricular assist device, we decided to use young pig whose coronary artery distribution is almost the same as humans and also very cheap in price. The purpose of this study is to develop stable, reproducible acute ischemic heart failure model in swine using coronary artery ligation method. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Five young pigs whose weights are the same as adult humans are under experiment. Each pig was under endotracheal intubation and connected to a mechanical ventilator. Through left lateral thoracotomy, we exposed the heart and induced ischemic heart failure by coronary artery ligation. The ligation began at the distal part of the left anterior descending coronary artery. After 5 minutes of initial ligation we reperfused the artery and then re-ligated. Before and after each ligation-reperfusion procedure we assessed the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, arterial pressure, and cardiac index. We also measured left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, end-systolic dimension, fractional shortening, ejection fraction using intraoperative epicardial echocardiography. After appropriate heart failure was established with sequential (from distal part of LAD to proximal location) ligation-reperfusion-ligation procedure, we inserted the ventricular assist device and operated. RESULT: We established stable acute ischemic heart failure in 3 of 5 young pigs with this sequential ligation-reperfusion-ligation procedure, and could maintained 50% less ejection fraction before the procedure according to intraoperative epicardial echocardiography. We also observed no ventricular arrhythmia usually associated with simple coronary artery ligation in large animals and no cardiac arrest associated with ventricular arrhythmia or myocardial stunning. In pathologic specimen, we observed scattered ischemic myocardium in all around the ischemic field induced by coronary artery ligation.
Under the concept of ischemic preconditioning, we developed safe and reproducible acute ischemic heart failure model in swine using sequential coronary artery ligation-reperfusion-ligation method.


Preconditioning; myocardial; Heart failure; Animal models

MeSH Terms

Animal Experimentation
Arrhythmias, Cardiac
Arterial Pressure
Coronary Vessels
Heart Arrest
Heart Failure*
Heart-Assist Devices*
Intubation, Intratracheal
Ischemic Preconditioning
Models, Animal
Myocardial Stunning
Ventilators, Mechanical
Weights and Measures
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