Clin Pediatr Hematol Oncol.  2011 Oct;18(2):119-125.

Seizures in Children Receiving Cancer Treatment

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan, Korea. limyt@pusan.ac.kr

Abstract

BACKGROUND
The neurological complications of childhood patients with cancer are caused by brain metastasis, chemotherapy, and infection. Seizure is one of the most important neurological complications of pediatric patients receiving chemotherapy. This study was designed to identify the causes, clinical manifestations, and prognosis of seizures in children receiving cancer treatment.
METHODS
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of pediatric cancer patients with seizures at Pusan National University Hospital from January 2005 to December 2010.
RESULTS
Among 271 patients, 31 experienced seizures (19 males and 12 females), and the mean age at the first seizure was 8.6 years (1.7-18.0 years). Seizures frequently occurred in patients with brain tumors (27.8%), and the types of seizures were generalized seizure in 15 patients (48.4%) and partial in 16 cases (51.6%). Eighteen (62.0%) of 29 patients who underwent a brain magnetic resonance imaging study and 21 (75.0%) of 28 cases who received an electroencephalogram recorded abnormal findings. The causes of seizures were drugs, CNS infections, and brain metastasis each in five cases (16.2%). Drugs were the most common cause in patients with a hematological malignancy (16.2%), whereas brain metastasis was the most common cause in patients with solid tumors (12.9%). Eight (40.0%) of 20 patients who survived received anticonvulsants. Eleven patients (35.5%) expired, and the most common cause of death was progression of the malignancy.
CONCLUSION
Drugs, CNS infection, and brain metastasis of tumors were the most common causes of seizure in children with malignancy.

Keyword

Neoplasms; Child; Seizures; Chemotherapy

MeSH Terms

Anticonvulsants
Brain
Brain Neoplasms
Cause of Death
Child
Electroencephalography
Hematologic Neoplasms
Humans
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Medical Records
Neoplasm Metastasis
Prognosis
Retrospective Studies
Seizures
Anticonvulsants
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