Exp Neurobiol.  2013 Jun;22(2):84-95. 10.5607/en.2013.22.2.84.

An Update of Animal Models of Alzheimer Disease with a Reevaluation of Plaque Depositions

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Korea. plhan@ewha.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Korea.
  • 3Brain Disease Research Institute, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Korea.

Abstract

Animal models of Alzheimer disease (AD) are used to study the mechanisms underlying AD pathogenesis, genetic interactions with genes of interest, and environmental risk factors that cause sporadic AD as well as to test the therapeutic effects of AD drug-candidates on neuropathology and cognitive function. To attain a comparative view on the AD models developed, representative AD lines were selected and summarized with respect to transgenic constructs and AD-related pathology. In addition, age-dependent plaque deposition data available in the literature for six representative AD models such as Tg2576, PDAPP, TgAPP23, Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9, 3xTg-AD, and 5XFAD mice were reevaluated using a photographic plaque reference scale method that was introduced recently. Tg2576, PDAPP, and TgAPP23 mice, which carry the amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgene, produced initially slow, but progressively accelerated plaque deposition as they aged, resulting in logistic plaque deposition. In contrast, Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9 and 3xTg-AD mice, which carry both APP and PS1 transgenes, developed abruptly accelerated plaque formation from the beginning, resulting in logarithmic plaque deposition. 5XFAD mice, which also carry both the APP and PS1 transgenes, developed a logarithmic deposition beginning at 2 months. This comparative analysis suggests that AD models may be classified into two distinct plaque deposition groups, and that early plaque models such as APPswe/PS1dE9, 3xTg-AD and 5XFAD might be useful to study the biochemical aspects of APP metabolism, whereas late plaque models such as Tg2576, PDAPP, and TgAPP23 might be useful to study more physiological and environmental aspects of AD pathogenesis, which occur on a longer time scale.

Keyword

Alzheimer disease; plaque deposition; APP models; APP and PS1 models; comparison of plaque levels

MeSH Terms

Aged
Alzheimer Disease
Amyloid
Animals
Humans
Mice
Models, Animal
Risk Factors
Transgenes
Amyloid
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