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Acute Leukemia Relapse Presenting as Recurrent Involvement of the Optic Nerve

Lee SY, Yoon JH, Chung SA

PURPOSE: To report two cases with recurrent involvement of the optic nerve as the initial sign of acute leukemic relapse. CASE SUMMARY: An 8-year-old male with acute lymphoblastic leukemia on the...
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Performance Evaluation of Body Fluid Cellular Analysis Using the Beckman Coulter UniCel DxH 800, Sysmex XN-350, and UF-5000 Automated Cellular Analyzers

Cho J, Oh J, Lee SG, Lee YH, Song J, Kim JH

BACKGROUND: Automated cellular analyzers are expected to improve the analytical performance in body fluid (BF) analysis. We evaluated the analytical performance of three automated cellular analyzers and established optimum reflex...
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Recent Updates on Narcolepsy and Hypersomnia

Hong S

Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological sleep disorder caused by hypocretin neuron loss, resulting in excessive daytime sleepiness, disturbed nocturnal sleep, and intrusions of aspects of rapid eye movement sleep in...
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Predictors of the Response to an Epidural Blood Patch in Patients with Spinal Leakage of Cerebrospinal Fluid

Kanno H, Yoshizumi , Nakazato N, Shinonaga

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: An epidural blood patch (EBP) is a highly effective therapy for spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. However, the factors predicting the response to an EBP have not...
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Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament: Surgical Approaches and Associated Complications

Head J, Rymarczuk , Stricsek G, Velagapudi L, Maulucci C, Hoelscher , Harrop J

Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is a rare but potentially devastating cause of degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM). Decompressive surgery is the standard of care for OPLL and can...
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Comparison of Red Blood Cell, White Blood Cell and Differential Counts between UF-5000 System and Manual Method

Koo MS, Lim J, Kim SY, Koo SH, Kwon GC

BACKGROUND: Analysis of body fluids provides important information for assessing various medical conditions. We aimed to validate the analytical and diagnostic performance of the Sysmex UF-5000 (Sysmex, Japan) system for...
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Intraventricular Vancomycin Therapy for Intractable Bacillus cereus Ventriculitis

Hahn JW, Ju HY, Park M, Yi ES, Park BK, Shin SH, Lee SH, Park HJ, Kang JM

Bacillus cereus causes serious central nervous system infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. Successful treatment requires adequate antimicrobial concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid; however, in some cases, achieving this with systemic...
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Analysis of Apparent Diffusion Coefficients of the Brain in Healthy Controls: A Comparison Study between Single-Shot Echo-Planar Imaging and Read-out-Segmented Echo-Planar Imaging

Choi Y, Hwang EJ, Nam Y, Choi HS, Jang J, Jung SL, Ahn KJ, Kim BS

OBJECTIVE: To compare apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of brain segments by using two diffusion-weighted imaging acquisition modes, single-shot echo-planar imaging (ss-EPI) and read-out-segmented echo-planar imaging (rs-EPI), and to assess their...
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Multiple epidural fibrin glue patches in a patient with spontaneous intracranial hypotension:A case report

Lee YG, Sa M, Oh IS, Lim JA, Woo NS, Kim JH

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a condition caused by spontaneous leakage of cerebrospinal fluid, with postural headache as the primary symptom. Orthostatic headache caused by SIH is often not...
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Factors Affecting the Response to First-Line Treatments in Patients with Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis

Zhang X, Wang C, Zhu W, Wang B, Liang H, Guo S

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is the most common type of autoimmune encephalitis. This study aimed to explore the possible factors affecting the response to first-line treatments in...
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Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels of β-Amyloid 40 and β-Amyloid 42 are Proportionately Decreased in Amyloid Positron-Emission Tomography Negative Idiopathic Normal-Pressure Hydrocephalus Patients

Kim HJ, Lim TS, Lee SM, Kim TS, Kim Y, An YS, Youn YC, Park SA, Chang J, Moon SY

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) could be misleading in idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). We therefore investigated the CSF biomarkers in 18F-florbetaben amyloid-negative positron-emission tomography...
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Pattern of Extraocular Muscle Involvements in Miller Fisher Syndrome

Ryu WY, Kim YH, Yoon BA, Park HT, Bae JS, Kim JK

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The most-common initial manifestation of Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) is diplopia due to acute ophthalmoplegia. However, few studies have focused on ocular motility findings in MFS. This...
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Primary central nervous system lymphoma with intramedullary spinal cord involvement mimicking inflammatory demyelinating disease

Kim H, Nam TS, Levy M, Lee KH, Kim J, Lee SJ

BACKGROUND: Spinal cord involvement of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is rare in a young immunocompetent patient and can be misdiagnosed as an inflammatory demyelinating disease (IDD) of the...
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Suture Repair in Endoscopic Surgery for Craniovertebral Junction

Yeh MY, Huang WC, Wu JC, Kuo CH, Chang HK, Tu TH, Chang PY, Yen YS, Cheng H

OBJECTIVE: Endoscopic approaches to the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) have been established as viable and effective surgical treatments in the past decade. One of the major complications is leakage of the...
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Is Cervical Stabilization for All Cases of Chiari-I Malformation an Overkill? Evidence Speaks Louder Than Words!

Deora H, Behari S, Sardhara J, Singh S, Srivastava AK

Chiari I malformation is characterized by the downward displacement of cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum. While discussing the treatment options for Chiari I malformation, the points of focus include:...
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Papilledema with Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis

Baek MS, Kyung SE

PURPOSE: We report two patients diagnosed with a sinus thrombosis with papillary edema. CASE SUMMARY: Case 1 was a 27-year-old male who presented with complaints of headache and vomiting for 2...
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Cerebrospinal Fluid CYFRA 21-1 as a Diagnostic Indicator for Leptomeningeal Metastasis in Cancer Patients

Hyun JW, Kim S, Shin HS, Yun JY, Kim SY, Kim SH, Kim JK, Jeong JH, Yoo H, Gwak HS, Kim HJ

BACKGROUND: The early and accurate diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) has become important because of introduction of new therapeutic strategies for LM and increasing incidence of LM along with longer...
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Neurological Symptoms of Intracranial Hypotension

Kang K, Kim BK

Intracranial hypotension usually arises in the context of known or suspected leak of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This leakage leads to a fall in intracranial CSF pressure and CSF volume. The...
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Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy in Children: a Long Way to Go

Lee YJ, Hwang SK, Kwon S

BACKGROUND: Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is a rare, but potentially life threatening neurological condition in children. This study aimed to investigate its clinical spectrum, diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma, and prognosis. METHODS:...
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Analysis of 12 Chinese Patients with Proline-to-Leucine Mutation at Codon 102-Associated Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker Disease

Wang J, Xiao K, Zhou W, Shi Q, Dong XP

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) with a proline-to-leucine mutation at codon 102 (P102L) in the PRNP gene is the most frequently reported GSS subtype worldwide. This study aimed to...
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