Korean J Vet Res.  2023 Dec;63(4):e37. 10.14405/kjvr.20230037.

Evaluation of hemagglutination inhibition test for canine respiratory coronavirus antibodies and seroprevalence in Korean dogs

  • 1Viral Disease Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Gimcheon 39660, Korea


Canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) is a significant pathogen that causes respiratory diseases in dogs, collectively known as a canine infectious respiratory disease. The virus is highly contagious and exhibits high seroprevalence worldwide. Currently, bovine coronavirus (BCoV) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits are used to detect CRCoV antibodies. However, BCoV-ELISA kits cannot differentiate between infections caused by BCoV and those caused by CRCoV. In this study, we evaluated the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for CRCoV by comparing it with the virus neutralization (VN) test. Subsequently, we evaluated the seroprevalence of CRCoV in 383 dog serum samples collected from South Korea utilizing the HI test. The HI test for CRCoV showed a strong correlation with the VN test (R = 0.83, p < 0.001). The analysis of seroprevalence revealed that 52.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 47.2%–57.1%) of the Korean dog serum samples were positive. The seroprevalence exhibited varied with age, with a positivity rate of 43.9% in dogs under 1 year of age and 66.7% in dogs aged 3 to 5 years (odds ratio [OR], 2.54; 95% CI, 1.43–4.59). In conclusion, the HI test to monitor CRCoV antibody proved to be closely related to the VN test. Furthermore, over half of the dogs in Korea tested positive for CRCoV antibodies. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the sero-epidemiology of CRCoV.


canine respiratory coronavirus; hemagglutination inhibition; seroprevalence; Republic of Korea
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