Radiat Oncol J.  2023 Sep;41(3):186-198. 10.3857/roj.2023.00444.

Feasibility of artificial intelligence-driven interfractional monitoring of organ changes by mega-voltage computed tomography in intensity-modulated radiotherapy of prostate cancer

  • 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Wonju Severance Christian Hospital, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea
  • 2Department of Radiation Convergence Engineering, Yonsei University, Wonju, Korea


High-dose radiotherapy (RT) for localized prostate cancer requires careful consideration of target position changes and adjacent organs-at-risk (OARs), such as the rectum and bladder. Therefore, daily monitoring of target position and OAR changes is crucial in minimizing interfractional dosimetric uncertainties. For efficient monitoring of the internal condition of patients, we assessed the feasibility of an auto-segmentation of OARs on the daily acquired images, such as megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT), via a commercial artificial intelligence (AI)-based solution in this study.
Materials and Methods
We collected MVCT images weekly during the entire course of RT for 100 prostate cancer patients treated with the helical TomoTherapy system. Based on the manually contoured body outline, the bladder including prostate area, and rectal balloon regions for the 100 MVCT images, we trained the commercially available fully convolutional (FC)-DenseNet model and tested its auto-contouring performance.
Based on the optimally determined hyperparameters, the FC-DenseNet model successfully auto-contoured all regions of interest showing high dice similarity coefficient (DSC) over 0.8 and a small mean surface distance (MSD) within 1.43 mm in reference to the manually contoured data. With this well-trained AI model, we have efficiently monitored the patient's internal condition through six MVCT scans, analyzing DSC, MSD, centroid, and volume differences.
We have verified the feasibility of utilizing a commercial AI-based model for auto-segmentation with low-quality daily MVCT images. In the future, we will establish a fast and accurate auto-segmentation and internal organ monitoring system for efficiently determining the time for adaptive replanning.


Artificial intelligence; Interfractional changes; Mega-voltage computed tomography; Intensity-modulated radiotherapy; Prostate cancer; Organ monitoring
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