Asian Nurs Res.  2023 May;17(2):102-109. 10.1016/j.anr.2023.03.003.

Validity and Reliability of the Korean Version of the Paternal Postnatal Attachment Scale

  • 1College of Nursing, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea


The study aimed to translate the Paternal Postnatal Attachment Scale (PPAS) into Korean and to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the PPAS (K-PPAS).
The PPAS was translated, back-translated, and reviewed by 12 experts and 5 fathers following the World Health Organization's guideline. A convenience sample of 396 fathers with infants in their first 12 months participated in this study. For construct validity, an underlying factor structure and model fit was assessed with an exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Convergent and discriminant validity and reliability of the K-PPAS were evaluated.
The construct validity of the K-PPAS with 11 items was identified by two-factor structures: healthy attachment relationship, and patience and tolerance. The final model fit was shown acceptable with the normed chi-square = 1.94, comparative fit index = .94, Tucker–Lewis index = .92, root mean square error of approximation = .07, and standardized root mean square residual = .06. This model had acceptable convergent and discriminant validity for each construct with the values of the composite reliability and heterotrait–monotrait ratio at a satisfactory level. Discriminant validity with known groups showed that fathers with no postnatal depression had significantly higher scores on the K-PPAS than those with postnatal depression. Cronbach's α and McDonald's omega coefficient of the K-PPAS was .84 and .83.
The K-PPAS would be beneficial to measure postnatal attachment among fathers with infants aged 12 months or younger in Korea. However, further studies are suggested to evaluate the applicability of the scale considering the various family structures, such as single or foster parents and multicultural families that exist within the Korean population.


father-child relations; infant; object attachment; reliability and validity; validation study
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