World J Mens Health.  2023 Apr;41(2):396-402. 10.5534/wjmh.210244.

Penile Glans Necrosis Following Prostatic Artery Embolization for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Case Series and Review of Current Literature

  • 1AndroUrology Centre, Brisbane, QLD and Sydney, NSW, Australia
  • 2Department of Urology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
  • 3Department of Urology, Macquarie University Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia


To report a case series of 6 patients with penile glans necrosis (PGN) following prostatic artery embolization (PAE) and review the current literature relating to PAE and PGN, including the emerging role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) for PGN.
Materials and Methods
All patients have failed medical BPH therapy and chose to undergo PAE over other minimally invasive BPH surgery. Patient demographics, preoperative and postoperative validated questionnaires such as the International Prostate Symptom Severity (IPSS) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scores, treatment-related adverse events (TRAE) and subsequent treatment for PGN were reviewed. All patients were follow-up with a minimum of 12 months post-PAE.
Between January 2018 and June 2020, six males with a mean age of 52.3 years (44–66 y) received PAE for BPH therapy. An immediate postoperative PGN was recognised in 4 out of 6 patients with the mean penile glans pain score of 3 and 4 patients reported altered penile glans sensitivity. Comparing the mean (and median) IPSS and IIEF-5 scores were 16.5 (16) and 21.3 (21) pre-PAE, there was improvements in IPSS and IIEF-5 scores at 12.0 (12) and 18.0 (18) at 12 months review. All patients reported normal penile glans sensitivity and only 1 patient reported an on-going penile glans pain (score 2). Four patients received HBOT while 2 patients elected for conservative care. All patients reported worse erectile function scores despite complete resolution of PGN.
PGN is a rare but serious complication of PAE with ensuing erectile dysfunction. HBOT appears to expedite the recovery process in men with PGN related to PAE with better erection scores compared to conservative measure.


Benign prostatic hyperplasia; Endovascular procedures; Erectile dysfunction; Necrosis; Penile diseases
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