Adv Pediatr Surg.  2022 Dec;28(2):37-46. 10.13029/aps.2022.28.2.37.

A Comparative Study of Two National Surveys of Anorectal Malformations in the Korean Association of Pediatric Surgeons

  • 1The Korean Association of Pediatric Surgeons (KAPS), Seoul, Korea


Anorectal malformations (ARMs) represent a wide spectrum of anomalies with various presentations and associated anomalies. The management of ARMs is still controversial and various managements for ARMs have been proposed. The aim of this study was to identify the status of ARMs in Korea and to analyze the data regarding classification, treatment and functional outcomes of ARMs among the Korean Association of Pediatric Surgeons (KAPS) members.
The KAPS has conducted a national survey for ARMs in 1999 and 2015 to analyze the differences and changes in the classification, treatment, and functional outcomes of ARMs.
A total of 295 and 619 ARMs patients were enrolled in the second and third national survey, respectively. The most common type among male and female was the low type in the second national survey and low defects (cutaneous fistula, anal stenosis, membrane) in the third national survey. Most common associated anomalies were genitourinary system in the second national survey and cardiovascular system in the third national survey. Various surgical options including anoplasty, posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) and laparoscopic surgery with or without colostomy were performed. Unfortunately, comparison regarding functional outcomes between 2 national surveys was not possible due to the use of different classification and functional assessment criteria.
We suggest making an ARMs registry at a national level so that multicenter functional outcome data can be collected for a better understanding and management of this rare anomaly.


Anorectal malformations; Pediatrics; Survey
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