Korean J Orthod.  2022 Jul;52(4):258-267. 10.4041/kjod21.126.

Validation of three-dimensional digital model superimpositions based on palatal structures in patients with maximum anterior tooth retraction following premolar extraction

  • 1Department of Orthodontics, Institute of Craniofacial Deformity, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea
  • 2BK21 FOUR Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea


This study aimed to evaluate the superimposition accuracy of digital modes for measuring tooth movement in patients requiring anterior retraction after premolar extraction based on the proposed reference regions.
Forty patients treated with bilateral maxillary first premolar extraction were divided into two groups: moderate retraction (< 7.0 mm) and maximum retraction (≥ 7.0 mm). Central incisor displacement was measured using cephalometric superimpositions and three-dimensional (3D) digital superimpositions with the 3rd or 4th ruga as the reference point. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and linear regression analyses were performed to test the significance of the differences and relationships between the two measurement techniques.
In the moderate retraction group, the central incisor anteroposterior displacement values did not differ significantly between 3D digital and cephalometric superimpositions. However, in the maximum-retraction group, significant differences were observed between the anteroposterior displacement evaluated by the 3rd ruga superimposition and cephalometric methods (p < 0.05).
This study demonstrated that 3D digital superimpositions were clinically as reliable as cephalometric superimpositions in assessing tooth movements in patients requiring moderate retraction. However, the reference point should be carefully examined in patients who require maximum retraction.


Digital models; Cephalometrics; Dental cast analysis; Palatal ruga
Full Text Links
  • KJOD
export Copy
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
Copyright © 2022 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: koreamed@kamje.or.kr