Epidemiol Health.  2022;44(1):e2022019. 10.4178/epih.e2022019.

Dairy product consumption and type 2 diabetes among Korean adults: a prospective cohort study based on the Health Examinees (HEXA) study

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Food and Nutrition, Chung-Ang University, Anseong, Korea
  • 2Faculty of Medicine and Health, School of Medical Science, University of Sydney, Melbourne, Australia

Abstract


OBJECTIVES
It has been suggested that the consumption of dairy products helps lower the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigated the association between the consumption of dairy products and T2D events in middle-aged Korean adults.
METHODS
We followed up 53,288 participants (16,895 male and 36,393 female) in the Health Examinees (HEXA) study. The consumption of dairy products was assessed using the self-administered food frequency questionnaire, and T2D was defined according to the 2015 treatment guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between the consumption of dairy products and the risk of T2D were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models after adjusting for potential confounders. Spline regression was used to better represent the association between the consumption of dairy products and the risk of T2D.
RESULTS
Among male, those with higher consumption of dairy products had a significantly lower risk of T2D than those who consumed essentially no dairy products (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.91). In particular, consumption of yogurt (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.93; ptrend=0.035) and cheese (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.89; ptrend=0.005) was negatively associated with the incidence of T2D in male. In female, daily consumption of 1 serving of yogurt decreased the risk of T2D by 11%.
CONCLUSIONS
The association between the consumption of dairy products and the risk of T2D differed by sex and dairy product type. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these associations.

Keyword

Dairy products; Yogurt; Type 2 diabetes; Cohort studies; Adults
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