J Clin Neurol.  2022 Jan;18(1):79-86. 10.3988/jcn.2022.18.1.79.

Impact of Dementia on Mortality Due to Coronavirus Disease 2019: Propensity-Score-Matching Study

Affiliations
  • 1Departments of Neurosurgery, Hallym University Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon, Korea
  • 2School of Nursing, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Korea
  • 3Departments of Neurology, Hallym University Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon, Korea

Abstract

Background and Purpose
Patients with dementia are particularly vulnerable to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) because they tend to be older and often have concomitant diseases. Previous studies have investigated the impact of dementia on COVID-19 outcomes, but the evidence is not robust for Asian populations. We aimed to determine the relationship between dementia and COVID-19 outcomes using data from a large-scale nationwide public database.
Methods
Data on patients with COVID-19 who were released from quarantine between January 1, 2020 and April 30, 2020, published by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency, were divided into two groups based on the dementia status. Propensity-score matching was used to adjust for multiple confounders between the dementia and no-dementia groups. Binary, ordinal logistic regression and multivariate Cox proportional-hazards models were used to compare mortality, quarantine duration, and clinical deterioration according to the dementia status in the two groups.
Results
Males and older individuals (age ≥60 years) constituted 41.5% and 32.9%, respectively, of the 5,299 patients. The prevalence of dementia was 4.2%, and 4.5% of the participants died during hospitalization. In multivariate analysis, dementia was significantly associated with increased mortality (odds ratio [OR]=2.80, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.60–4.60), longer duration of quarantine (hazard ratio=1.69, 95% CI=1.16–2.45), and larger shift to a worse clinical severity (common OR=1.74, 95% CI=1.18–2.61).
Conclusions
After adjusting for important clinical predictors, dementia was associated with increased in-hospital mortality, duration of quarantine, and clinical deterioration during hospitalization in COVID-19 patients.

Keyword

COVID-19; dementia; mortality
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