World J Mens Health.  2021 Oct;39(4):581-597. 10.5534/wjmh.200114.

How to Prevent and Manage Post-Prostatectomy Incontinence: A Review

Affiliations
  • 1Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy
  • 2Division of Experimental Oncology/Unit of Urology, URI, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy
  • 3Unit of Urology, ASST Sette Laghi – Circolo e Fondazione Macchi Hospital, Varese, Italy
  • 4University of Insubria, Varese, Italy

Abstract

Purpose
To provide an overview of the currently available evidence relating to the prevention and management strategies of urinary incontinence (UI) after radical prostatectomy (RP).
Materials and Methods
A comprehensive research was carried out on MEDLINE/PubMed database to identify pertinent studies concerning post-RP UI. The search strategy included these words: urinary continence; urinary continence recovery; urinary incontinence; radical prostatectomy; and prostate cancer.
Results
Post-RP UI still represents a challenging issue for both urologic patients and clinicians. A complete preoperative assessment of the risk factors associated with post-RP UI aids both in counseling those patients with a higher estimated likelihood of postoperative UI and in identifying those who would probably benefit from preventive strategies in the preoperative and in the intraoperative settings. Over the last decades different surgical strategies based on either the “preservation” or the “reconstruction” of the anatomical elements responsible for urinary continence (UC) led to an overall improvement of postoperative functional outcomes. Finally, several therapeutic strategies should be evaluated for the postoperative UI management. Artificial urinary sphincter implantation represents the gold standard for treatment, notwithstanding its wide adoption is limited due to high costs and significant risk of surgical revision. In this context, male sling positioning seems the most promising strategy, in particular in mild and moderate post-RP UI.
Conclusions
To enhance the likelihood of obtaining an optimal UC recovery after RP, it is here strongly suggested to intervene throughout the overall clinical management process thus including the pre-, intra- and postoperative settings.

Keyword

Prostatectomy; Prostatic neoplasms; Robotic surgical procedures; Urinary incontinence
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